Paul Kagame News Forums Rwanda and Burundi Voices ABACUNGUZI BA FDLR/FOCA

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  • #1673

    UBUTUMWA BW’UBUYOBOZI BUKURU BWA FOCA BUGENEWE ABACUNGUZI BA FDLR/FOCA.

    Kuva tariki ya 27 Gicurasi 2016, koloneli Irategeka Wilson wari vise Perezida wa kabiri w’urugaga FDLR, yaragumutse, yanga ibyemezo yafatiwe na komite nyobozi yateranye nka Comité de Résistance National des FDLR tariki ya 23 kugeza 26 Gicurasi, kubera amakosa yo kutumvira ubutegetsi bumukuriye, no gushora impunzi z’Abacunguzi mu bikorwa binyuranye n’urugamba turwana rwo kuzirengera no kuzazitahana mu cyubahiro zifite ijambo mu gihugu cyacu.
    Kuva tariki ya 30 Gicurasi 2016, ari guhamagarira abacunguzi bamwe ba FOCA b’umutima mucye woroshye kugumuka bitabira icyo yita CNRD-ubwiyunge,(Conseil National pour la Réconciliation et la Démocratie)
    Yashingiye ibirindiro i Nyarubande (Bwito / Rutchuru)muri RD Congo.

    Iryo gumuka rifite imizi kure ishingiye mu gushwanisha abacunguzi, no gushaka gusenya FDLR ngo aboneremo indonke y’amafaranga, no kujya gutuzwa mu mahanga ya kure mu munezero.

    Bacunguzi, Bacunguzikazi, mwibuke bya hafi, ibyo twagiye tubagezaho bya : la grande enigme des FDLR by’amacakubiri ya « ndugustes na kigustes » ; ibya CPC (Coalition des partis politiques pour le changement) ; ibya ERM (Equal Rights Movement), none bigeze na CRND-ubwiyunge. Nta bwiyunge nta bumwe Irategeka Wilson ashaka bw’abacunguzi, habe n’ubw’abanyarwanda. Kuko mu byo arimo gukora, ari kuvangura, yikururira, ahera ku aba Nyakabanda (Gitarama) aho avuka n’abandi babyitabira ku izina gusa ngo « ndi uwo mu majyepfo y’u Rwanda ».

    Ubutegetsi bwa FOCA by’umwihariko, buramagana koloneli Irategeka Wilson n’abategetsi ba gisirikari bamuyobotse kwigumura mu nzego zose, bakomeje no kunyonya abacunguzi babashukisha intica ntikize y’udufaranga. Yo se izageza ryari ? Bacunguzi, twakwibagirwa ibyagendekeye abo ba Mahoro Jerubali na cemuce (CMC : Commandement Miltaire pour le Changement ), na Musare na rudi ye (RUD : …) bashutse ? Ubu bahagaze he ? Gute ? Irategeka alias Lumbago niyo CRND se nibo gakiza gashya azaniye abacunguzi ?

    Ubuyobozi bwa FOCA, burasaba abacunguzi bakurikiye buhumyi abigumuye ko bashyira ubwenge ku gihe, bakibaza, bakisubiza, bakaba abagabo bakagaruka mu nzira nziza ya FDLR/FOCA. Bagarutse mu gihe kitarenze iminsi icumi uhereye tariki ya 1 Kamena 2016, bakagarukana ibikoresho by’Urugaga FDLR batwaye, barababarirwa. Nyuma y’aho n’Imana imbabazi ntiyazitanga.

    Abinangiye, bakomeje gushukwa, ngo bagiye mu gisirikari gihemba buri kwezi, bazi uko byagendekeye aba twavuze haruguru, nibagende bazi ko bagiye kubacyura bugwate mu Rwanda kandi ko ingoyi ya Kagame ibategereje. Bibuke ko twasimbutse inzitizi nyinshi z’abakinisha politiki nka Higiro JMV, Rwarakabije Paul, Muhindo Hyacinte n’abandi… Basimbuke n’uru !

    Ubutegetsi bwa FOCA burashima abatangiye kwitandukanya n’abo bagizi ba nabi bashaka gusenya FDLR, bafashijwe n’amahanga amwe y’iyi si abari inyuma, batazi “agati kateretswe n’Imana”.

    Ubutegetsi bwa FDLR/FOCA burashimira bunizeza abakomeje umutsi (résister ) ko bazi kureba kure heza hazaza ; kandi batibagirwa vuba amateka twanyuzemo y’u Rwanda ; barangaza imbere inyungu za rubanda nyamwinshi itsikamiwe ngo bababohore agahotoro k’ingoma mbi nkora maraso ya FPR Inkotanyi.

    Ubuyobozi bwa FOCA burizeza kandi abanyarwanda bose, cyane b’impunzi aho bari hose ko itazatezuka, ku mugambi wo kubohoza abarengana bose ku ruhembe rw’umuheto niba inzira y’amahoro n’ibiganiro na Leta ya Kigali itabonetse.

    Bacunguzi, Bacunguzikazi n’incuti ba FDLR/FOCA, dukomeze umutsi, tumenye ko Imana ifasha uwifashije kandi ko intsinzi iri hafi !
    Twirinde amacakubiri y’uturere, izo ngumuke ziri gucengeza mu bantu.
    Amen !
    Bikozwe tariki ya 3 Kamena 2016
    Le Commandant des FOCA
    (sé)

    Criminal Paul Kagame

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  • #27247

    Umugambi Paul Kagame yari yimirije imbere arasa indege ya Yuvenali Habyarimana anarwanya ihagarikwa ry’itsembabwoko wari uwo gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu. Ibyo byagezweho ku itariki ya 4 Nyakanga 1994. Inshingano ye ya kabiri yari ukwiha uburyo bwose bwo kumenyekanisha ubutegetsi bwe byemewe n’amategeko, yigaragaza nk’uwarokoye Abatutsi yari amaze kwicisha no kugira ibitambo.

    Dore uko Jean-Pierre Mugabe wahoze ari umusirikari ukomeye mu nzego z’iperereza rya FPR abisobanura. Ni we Mututsi wa mbere wamaganye ku mugaragaro uruhare rw’ishyaka rye FPR mw’itsembabwoko ryo muri 1994. Mu buhamya yatanze kw’itariki ya 25 Mata 2000 ku rupfu rwa Perezida Habyarimana, Jean-Pierre Mugabe yanditse ibikurikira: «Icyemezo cya Kagame cyo guhanura indege ya Habyarimana cyabaye intandaro y’ishyano ritigeze ribaho mu mateka y’Abanyarwanda kandi Kagame yabikoranye umutimanama we wose. Inyota y’ubutegetsi yabaye impamvu y’itsembwa ry’imiryango yacu.» Jean-Pierre Mugabe yakomeje agira ati: «Abatazi ukuri basingiza Kagame nk’umutabazi; ariko iminsi yagaragaje ko ari we ntandaro y’amakuba yacu. Yari yarahungishije imiryango mike y’abamuhaga akayabo k’amafaranga, naho ababyeyi bacu bo mu rwego ruciriritse abaterereza Interahamwe.

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27248

    RWANDA : CNDD/FDD Ishyaka ririkubutegetsi igira iti:”Ibi Leta ya Kigali yise jenoside ni ikinyoma kuko FPR/Inkontanyi yari igamije gusiga ibara Leta y’ Abahutu”.Inzobere muri politiki yo mu Biyaga Bigali, Mwalimu Filip Reyntjens wigisha muri Kaminuza ya Anvers mu Bubiligi asanga iri tangazo rya CNDD/FDD ari n’ ubushotoranyi bukomeye ndetse bizatuma umubano w’ ibi bihugu byombi uteri uhagaze neza urushaho kumera nabi.Mu kiganiro na RFI mu gitondo cyo kuri uyu wa Mbere taliki ya 22/8/ 2016, Filip Reyntjens yagize ati:” Iyi mvugo ya CNDD/FDD igaragaza ipfobya ryuzuye kuko Perezida w’ iri shyaka ahakana ko nta jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda ngo ahubwo FPR ikimara gutsinda urugamba yahise ibihimba”.N’ ubwo ntacyo u Rwanda ruragira icyo ruvuga kuri iri tangazo ry’ abahezanguni, ntawakwirengagiza ko FPR/Inkontanyi yarwanyije abajenosideri ndetse Leta y’ u Rwandaikomeje guhangana nabo mu butabera mpuzamahanga.Ku rundi ruhande, bene iyi mvugo ntinakoreshwa n’ abakekwaho kugira uruhare muri jenoside mu Rwanda byumvikane ko bizagira ingaruka mbi ku mpande zombi.Isesengura rya Congo Sud kivu rigaragazako iyi mvugo y’ ishyaka riri ku butegetsi Bujumbura ari ikimenyetso cy’ imbaraga nke za Leta ya Nkurunziza iri mu mazi abira dore ko yahisemo inzira y’ ubwigunge kuko ntigaragara ku rwego mpuzamahanga.CNDD/FDD ikomeje kwikanga urugendo Minisitiri w’ ingabo wa Canada yagiriye ku mugabane wa Afurika aherekejwe na Gen. Roméo Dallaire.Iri shyaka rikomeza ryemeza ko Gen.Romeo Dallaire ariwe wafashije FPR/Inkontanyi gufata ubutegetsi ndetse ngo ikaba ifite misiyo yo gufasha inyeshyamba zifite intego yo guhirika Nkurunziza ku mwanya wa Perezida w’ Burundi.

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27249

    Ikiganiro Mwalimu yagiranye na Bwana Augustin Iyamuremye, wari umukuru w’ibiro by’iperereza mu butegesti bwabanjirije jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu mwaka wa 1994.
    Iki kiganiro gishingiye ku nyota yo kumenya uburyo jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yaba yarateguwe, uburyo yateguwemo n’abayiteguye, niba bizwi n’uwari ushinzwe ibiro by’iperereza.

    Mbanze nibutse abasomyi bazabasha gusoma iki gitabo , uwo uri we mu mateka y’u Rwanda.
    • Ni wowe wari umuyobozi w’ibiro by’iperereza nibura imyaka ibiri mbere yuko jenoside itangira.
    • Wabarizwaga mu mashyaka atavuga rumwe na MRND bivuze ko utavugaga rumwe na Habyarimana.
    • Ukomoka mu majyepfo y’u Rwanda ahitwaga kera muri perefegitura ya Butare.
    • Utunze umukobwa wa Sindikubwabo Theodore wigeze kuba Perezida wa repubulika by’agateganyo nyuma y’iyicwa rya Perezida Habyarimana.
    • FPR imaze gufata ubutegetsi washyizwe mu nzego zayo zo hejuru, harimo kuba Ministre w’ububanyi n’amahanga ku ngoma ya Paul Kagame.
    • Wanyuze mu y’indi myanya ikomeye mu butegetsi bwa FPR harimo no kuba umusenateri.
    • Birushijeho, wagizwe umuyobozi wa komisiyo yiga ivugururwa ry’itegekonshinga kugira ngo Paul Kagame abashe guhabwa izindi manda zo kuyobora igihugu.
    • Ukaba uri umuntu ukomeye cyane mu butegetsi bw’u Rwanda rwa Kagame.

    Amateka yacu mu magambo avunaguye :
    Duhere ku mateka y’u Rwanda.
    Muri 1959, abaturage bigobotoye ingoma ya cyami ntutsi yari imaze imyaka amagana n’amagana ibica urubuzo, ibyo byanyuze mu cyaje kwitwa révolution ya rubanda.
    Ingaruka z’iyo révolution ni uko benshi mu bari bashyigikiye ubwami bari bamaze gutakaza ingoma, kimwe n’abandi b’inzirakarengane bahohotewe, bafashe inzira y’ubuhungiro bagana mu bihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda, ari byo Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania na Kongo.
    Hagati ya 1961 kugeza 1968 haje kuvuka umutwe wiyise inyenzi wari ugizwe n’abatutsi bahunze, baharaniraga gutera u Rwanda ngo bagaruke ku butegetsi bakoresheje ingufu za gisirikare . Habaye ibitero byinshi by’inyenzi, uko bateye bagasubizwa inyuma, ari nako bahungabanya ubumwe n’umutekano hagati y’abana b’u Rwanda.
    Abatutsi benshi b’inzirakarengane bagiye bahohoterwa, abandi baricwa bazira kwitirirwa abo bantu b’inyenzi baharaniraga kugaruka gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu.
    Muri 1973, mu Rwanda, ubutegetsi bwarahindutse, uwari Perezida w’u Rwanda, Grégoire Kayibanda, aba avuyeho, asimburwa na HabyarimanaYuvenari.
    Mu myaka ya 1970, kuza mu myaka ya nyuma, Ubugande bwagiye butegekwa n’abaperezida bivugwa ko bakoreshaga igitugu no guhungabanya umutekano w’abanyagihugu, badasize n’umutekano w’ibihugu bituranye n’Ubugande.
    Iyirukanwa ry’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda bikozwe na Milton Obote:
    Mu myaka ya za 1980-1982, ubutegetsi bwariho i Bugande bwaje gutoteza impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zahungiyeyo mu myaka ya 1959-1973. Milton Obote yaje kwirukana impunzi, maze ziyemeza kugaruka iwabo mu Rwanda, mu gihugu cyabo cy’amavuko.
    Mu gihe impunzi zageraga mu Rwanda, ntibakiriwe neza nk’uko byagombaga kugenda, ahubwo benshi muri bo barirukanwe basubizwa i Bugande kandi nta mutekano bahafite. Iri rikaba ari ikosa rikomeye cyane ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwakoze, bunarikorera Abanyarwanda, baba ab’impunzi bangiwe gutaha iwabo, baba ab’imbere babujijwe uburenganzira bwo kwakira no kubana n’abavandimwe babo bavuye ishyanga.
    Impunzi z’abatutsi ziyemeza kugana iy’ishyamba:
    Mu gihe impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zirukanwaga i Bugande, zikangirwa kwinjira mu gihugu cyazo cy’u Rwanda, byahuriranye na Museveni wiyemeje kugana iy’ishyamba kujya kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Uganda atemeraga , bityo bimworohera cyane kwinjiza mu ngabo ze abasore b’impunzi z’abatutsi bari baratotejwe ku ngoma ya Milton Obote . Impunzi z’Abanyarwanda ziyemeje kumurwanirira kugira ngo nibura zibone aho ziba zihishe. Kubw’amahirwe, mu ntagiriro za 1986, Museveni yatsinze intambara abifashijwemo cyane n’izo mpunzi z’abatutsi zamurwaniriye.
    Ifatwa ry’ubutegetsi i Kampala :
    Muri 1986, Museveni amaze gufata ubutegetsi i Kampala, imyanya yose ikomeye mu rwego rwa gisirikare n’iz’umutekano, yayishyize mu maboko y’impunzi z’abatutsi b’Abanyarwanda kuko ari bo bamurwaniriye, bakamumenera amaraso, bakamugeza ku butegetsi. Bigeza n’aho umwe muri bo ariwe Fred Rwigema amugize Minisitiri w’Ingabo z’igihugu.
    Muri 1987, mu kwezi kwa mbere, mu nama abatutsi bagiranye , basabye Museveni kubafasha gutaha iwabo, kuko babonaga nta kindi kintu yabaha , nta n’ikindi yabamarira, usibye kubasubiza mu gihugu cyabo birukanwemo, barabuze uburyo bwo kugisubiramo.
    Ntiyashoboraga kubibangira kuko ari bo bamurinze kandi bamukingiye ngo hatagira abandi Baganda bamwambura ubutegetsi, kandi ukugera ku butegetsi kwe abikesha amaraso yabo yamenekeye ku rugamba rwo kubohoza Ubugande. N’Abagande kandi nabo bari basonzeye imyanya yari ifitwe n’Abanyarwanda mu butegetsi bwa Uganda
    Mu kwezi kwa gatandatu k’uwo mwaka, Museveni yaje kujya kugisha inama Perezida wa Tanzania, Julius Kambarage Nyerere, agira ngo amenye uko yakwitwara muri icyo kibazo cy’impunzi z’abatutsi, dore ko anatera u Bugande, aturutse muri Tanzania, ari Nyerere wamwemereye, akabimuhera umugisha n’inkunga zose yamukeneyeho, amubwira ko nta kibazo, ko agomba kubafasha gutaha ku ngufu nk’uko nabo bamufashije kugera ku butegetsi ku ngufu.
    Muri 1988, Museveni amaze kwemerera abatutsi b’impunzi, banahawe ubwenegihugu bwa Uganda, ko azabafasha gutaha mu Rwanda ku ngufu. Museveni yaje kugusha Habyarimana mu mutego, maze amutumira mu mihango yo kwambika amapeti abo basirikare b’abaganda bakivuga ko ari Abanyarwanda bari baramurwaniriye. Mu basirikare yambitse amapeti harimo Paul Kagame, Fred Gisa Rwigema n’abandi Banyarwanda benshi .
    Ishingwa rya FPR mu rwego rwo kuzatera u Rwanda :
    Nk’uko Museveni yari yarabibemereye, abatutsi bose, aho bari hose ku isi, bahise baterana biyemeza kugabanya amacakubiri yabarangaga, bashyiraho umutwe wa poritiki witwa FPR wagombaga kunganirwa n’igisirikare cyitwa APR .
    1988, muri Amerika habereye inama ishyiraho ishyaka rya FPR. Habaye kongre ebyiri, iy’i Washington n’indi yayibanjirije y’i Los Angeles, ndetse bahabonera n’inkunga zitandukanye za bamwe mu Banyamerika.
    Intangiriro y’ uruhari rwa Tanzania mu marorerwa yagwiriye u Rwanda :

    Impunzi z’abatutsi zahunze u Rwanda guhera mu myaka ya za 1959 kugeza 1973, bamwe muri bo bahungiye muri Tanzania, bakirwa n’ ubutegetsi bwa Julius Nyerere mu myaka yakurikiye ubwigenge bwa Tanzania.
    Iguhugu cya Tanzania cyabaye icya mbere mu kumva akarengane k’impunzi zose zari zarameneshejwe mu bihugu byazo, bityo n’impunzi z’Abanyarwanda baziha umwanya wihariye. Tanzania yasabye u Rwanda gucyura impunzi kuva kera, ariko u Rwanda ntirwabyitaho .
    Nyuma y’uko ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwangiye impunzi z’abatutsi kwakirwa mu gihugu cyazo cy’amavukiro, kandi zari zirukanwe muri Uganda na Milton Obote, iyi myifatire y’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana yababaje cyane Perezida Nyerere nawe wari ufite impunzi zitari nke z’abatutsi zahungiye mu gihugu cye. Ni bwo Nyerere yegereye bimwe mu bihugu bikomeye byamwumvaga, maze abigezaho uburemere bw’icyo kibazo cy’impunzi z’abatutsi, ni bwo atangiye kubacengezamo igitekerezo cyo kuzacyura izo mpunzi hakoreshejwe ingufu za gisirikare.
    Ibihugu byari byarafashije Tanzania kwirukana Idi Amin Dada mu ntambara, byabwiye Nyerere ko abyize neza , akerekana ko bwaba ari bwo buryo bwatuma ikibazo cy’impunzi gikemuka, ko babimufashamo.
    Tanzania ifasha Museveni kuvanaho ubutegetsi bwa Milton Obote:
    Tanzania imaze kuganira n’ibihugu bitandukanye by’abazungu, byamwemereye gufasha Museveni kurwanya Milton Obote. Nyuma y’urwo rugamba , Museveni yatsinda, hagahita higwa ukuntu impunzi z’abatutsi b’Abanyarwanda na bo bacyurwa mu gihugu cyabo ku ngufu, kandi ni nako byagenze.
    Tanzania, kimwe n’ibindi bihugu byo mu karere , harimo Uburundi, Uganda na Zayire, bafashije inkotanyi, bareka urubyiruko rw’abatutsi rukomoka ku babyeyi bari barahungiye muri ibyo bihugu bajya gufatanya n’inkotanyi muri Uganda kugira ngo babashe gutera u Rwanda.
    1990, umutwe wiyise Inkotanyi ukomoka mu mpunzi z’Abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi bateye u Rwanda babifashijwemo na Museveni.
    Muri 1993, haje gushyirwa umukono ku masezerano yari yatangiye mbere yaho , imishyikirano yahuzaga Leta y’u Rwanda n’uwo mutwe w’inkotanyi. Iyo mishyikirano yaberaga Arusha muri Tanzania.
    Muri ayo masezerano hateganywaga uburyo igihugu kizayoborwa bundi bushya, kandi n’ibibazo byose byari bihari bikiganwa n’ibice byose byasinye ayo masezerano, bityo n’ikibazo cy’impunzi kikabonerwa umuti burundu.
    Urugamba rwa FPR iyobowe na Paul Kagame rwakozwe rute ?
    Muri gahunda yo gusenya inzego zose z’ubutegetsi zariho mu Rwanda, kugira ngo bizabashe kugeza Paul Kagame ku butegetsi, yashyizweho ingamba zo kugura no kugira ibyitso benshi mu bategetsi batakundaga igihugu cyabo, Kagame abizeza kubaha amafranga, kimwe n’izindi ndonke zitandukanye. Kugira ngo abo bose bamukorere , bamufasha kumuha amakuru yose ya ngombwa umutwe wa FPR wari ukeneye mu gutsinda urugamba, kimwe n’izindi nkunga zose Kagame yari akeneye imbere mu gihugu.
    Paul Kagame kandi yijeje abamufashije bose bakorera mu nzego z’imbere mu gihugu kuzabaha indi myanya mu gihe azaba yatsinze urugamba bazaba baramufashijemo, imyanya iruta iyo Habyarimana yari yarabahaye .
    Bimwe mu byakozwe n’ibyitso bya FPR imbere mu gihugu harimo ibi bikurikira:
    1. Gufasha mu buryo bwose bushobora urubyiruko rukomoka mu miryango y’abatutsi gusanga FPR mu mashyamba aho yarwaniraga.
    2. Korohereza bamwe muri urwo rubyiruko kugaruka imbere mu gihugu nyuma yo kwitoza ibya gisirikare , bagera ku mirenge y’iwabo cyangwa ahandi FPR yifuje ko bayigirira akamaro, maze bakicara bategereje kuzashyira mu bikorwa amabwiriza bazahabwa na FPR.
    3. Gufasha FPR kuyibonera ububiko bwo guhishamo ibikoresho bya gisirikare imbere mu gihugu no kuyifasha kurinda aho hantu hose ibyo bikoresho bibitse.
    4. Gufasha FPR mu kuyobya uburari no kutavuga inkuru nyazo ku byerekeye ibikorwa by’iterabwoba yakoraga imbere mu gihugu, harimo gutega ibisasu ahantu hatandukanye, cyangwa kwica abantu ku buryo butandukanye hirya no hino mu gihugu.
    5. Kugira inama FPR ku nzira yakoresha kugira ngo ibashe gusenya ubutegetsi bwariho mu buryo bwihuse.
    6. Gufasha FPR gukusanya imisanzu mu bayoboke bayo bari imbere mu gihugu, no kuyifasha kongera abandi bayoboke benshi bashoboraga kuboneka mu nzego z’ubutegetsi.
    Nyuma y’ibyo maze gutondagura noneho uyu ni umwanya wo kugira ibyo nkubaza, nabyo mbanje kubisasira:
    • Mu mwanya wawe w’umukozi mukuru w’ibiro bishinzwe iperereza.
    • Wari ufite abantu baguhagarariye mu maperefegitura yose y’u Rwanda, amakomine yose n’ahandi, ndetse no hanze y’igihugu.
    • Wabonaga amakuru yose yerekeranye n’ibyakorwaga byose, haba mu nzego za leta , cyangwa mu baturage, kuko kari akazi kawe.
    • Watangaga amakuru yose y’abantu bavaga mu Rwanda bajya kwiyunga n’umutwe w’inkotanyi.
    • Wari warakoze liste y’imiryango yose y’abatutsi uhereye muri buri selire y’u Rwanda, segiteri na komine kugeza kuri perefegitura , werekana abantu bajyaga mu nkotanyi bose, abagumagayo ndetse n’abagarukaga imbere mu gihugu. Ibi wabikoraga mu rwego rwawe rw’umukuru w’ibiro by’iperereza.
    • Ni nawe watangaga amakuru yose yerekeranye n’abantu bose boherereza umutwe wa FPR inkunga z’amafranga cyangwa z’ubundi bufasha FPR yari ikeneye.
    • Ni wowe wari ushinzwe guha Ministre w’intebe amakuru yose y’ ubutasi yerekeranye n’umutekano w’igihugu, na we akayasangiza Perezida wa repubulika.
    • Ubuzima bwose bw’igihugu bushingiye ku makuru y’ubutasi, byose byari mu maboko yawe.
    Dore rero ibibazo icumi na bitatu ( 13 ) gusa nifuza ko wasubiza Abanyarwanda.
    Kuva mu mwaka wa 1994 ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwashinje ubutegetsi bw’abahutu bwatsinzwe muri nyakanga 1994, ko bwateguye kandi bugashyira mu bikorwa jenoside yakorewe abatutsi.
    Icyaha cya jenoside ni icyaha gikorwa na leta, ikoresheje inzego za leta, bivuze ko abantu bakorera leta bakoresheje ubushobozi bavana muri leta bakorera n’ibikoresho byayo, babikoresha mu gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi wa jenoside.
    Niba hari umugambi uwo ari wo wose wategurwa , abantu ba mbere bagomba kubimenya, baba bawurimo cyangwa batawurimo, ni umuyobozi w’ibiro by’iperereza mu gihugu, kimwe n’umukuru w’ingabo, kuko abo bantu bombi ni bo bonyine baba babitse amakuru y’ubutasi y’ukuntu igihugu giteye umunsi ku wundi.
    Ibibazo byanjye rero aka ari ibi :
    1. Mbese wemera ko mu Rwanda habaye itegurwa ry’umugambi wa jenoside ?
    2. Mu makuru yawe y’ubutasi mu gihe waba wemeje ko uwo mugambi wabayeho, wabayeho ryari? Amanama yo gutegura uwo mugambi yaberaga he ? Yari agizwe na bande ? Wowe wari ufitemo ruhari ki, mu kubimenya cyangwa mu kutabimenya?
    3.Mbese ko wari ufite abaguhagarariye mu nzego zose z’igihugu, ukaba warategekaga ibiro by’iperereza uhabwa amakuru y’imbere mu gihugu n’ayo hanze yigihugu, wigeze ubwirwa na rimwe ko hari abantu barimo bategura umugambi wo kuzica abatutsi, haba mu rwego rwa komine, cyangwa perefegitura, ndetse no mu rwego rw’igihugu ?
    4. Ko raporo zose za buri munsi wazishyikirizaga ministre w’intebe kandi buri munsi , waba hari ikintu wamenye maze ntukimubwire ?
    5. Mbere y’uko indege ya Habyarimana iraswa, sobukwe Sindikubwaho Theodore ni we wari perezida w’inama ishinga amategeko, CND, irimo abadepite bose bakomoka mu turere tw’igihugu. Waba se warigeze kuganira na sobukwe we wakomokaga mu ishyaka rya MRND, kandi ari nimero ya kabiri mu butegetsi bwo kwa Habyarimana, maze ukamusangiza amakuru y’uko hari umugambi wo kwica abatutsi waba warabonaga ?
    6. Habyarimana amaze kwicwa , hemejwe ko sobukwe ahita aba Perezida wa Repubulika
    w’agateganyo, ndetse kubera umutekano wawe nkuko babivugaga , haje kuba igihe
    wasabye ko mubana mu nzu imwe, maze birakorwa, murabana. Nibutse ko tariki ya 7
    ukwezi kwa kane, umwaka 1994, indege yaraye irashwe, wowe wari ku Gisenyi aho
    wagombaga gukurikirana imirimo y’akanama ka CEPGL ishinzwe umutekano mu bihugu
    bituranye n’ibiyaga bigari, inama ihuje u Rwanda, Burundi na Zayire.

    7.Igihe se wari umaze kubonana na Sobukwe munabana mu nzu imwe nkuko nabivuze , ko ubwicanyi bwari bwaratangiye ku mpande zose, waba warasangije sobukwe kuri ayo makuru y’ubutasi y’itegurwa ry’umugambi wa jenoside ngo nibura amenye ko ubutegetsi yari ahagarariye bwarimo gukora jenoside ? Muri make, Sindikubwabo ubwo yari Perezida wa Repuburika y’u Rwanda wamubwiye ko ubutegetsi bwe burimo gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi wa jenoside ? Wamubwiye se abayiteguye n’inzira bari barahisemo kuzakoresha kugira ngo iyo jenoside izabashe gushyirwa mu bikorwa ?

    8. Hagati mu gihe cya jenoside, wa mwanya wakoragamo ku ngoma ya Nsengiyaremye Dismas no ku ngoma y’Agathe Uwilingiyimana wari ministre w’intebe, baje kugusimbuza undi muntu, guverinoma yitwaga iy’abatabazi iguha undi mwanya ukomeye wo kuyobora imwe mu maprojet yari ifite amafranga menshi. Wemeye gukomeza gukorera ubwo butegetsi uzi neza ko burimo gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi wa jenoside yo kumara abatutsi?
    9.Wowe nk’umukuru w’ibiro by’iperereza wari uzi neza ibikorwa bya FPR imbere mu gihugu, wari uzi neza ko muri 1993, uwitwa Karenzi Karake, abitegetswe na Paul Kagame, bashyizeho umutwe witwa network Commando wari ushinzwe kwica no gusenya ibintu byose byatuma habaho imvururu kugira ngo ubutegetsi buhirime, wari uzi neza ko integano za network commando kwari no kwica abatutsi cyangwa kubicisha kugira ngo bishyirwe ku butegetsi bwariho, mbese aya makuru wigeze uyatangaho raporo uyiha Ministre w’intebe Agatha Uwilingiyimana ? Cyangwa ngo nyuma uyahe sobukwe Dr. Sindikubwabo Theodore ? Ishyirwaho ry’uwo mutwe wa Network Commando n’imikorere yawo yose, ni uwuhe mutegetsi wa leta wabihayemo raporo ?
    Nyuma se bwo, aho MINUAR iziye ,ko mugomba kuba mwarakoranaga, wabimenyesheje nde muri MiNUAR?
    10. Wowe nk’umuntu wari ushinzwe ibiro by’iperereza wamenye neza ko hari ibitero FPR yakoraga igamije kwica abatutsi kugira ngo bishyirwe ku butegetsi bwariho, aha ndavuga ibitero FPR yakoze yica abagogwe muri Mutura ? Nkavuga ubwicanyi FPR yakoreye muri Sous prefegitura ya Kirambo, Nkavuga ubwicanyi FPR yakoze muri superefegitura ya Kinihira abaturage bari bahatuye banze gutora FPR , maze igahitamo kubica, mbese aya maraporo hari ubutegetsi bwa leta wigeze uyasangiza ?
    11. Mbese uwavuga ko wari umwe mu bakozi bakoreraga FPR ariko bihishe mu nzego z’imbere mu gihugu, hari aho yaba akubesheye ?
    12. Tuvuge ku itahuka ryawe uva muri Kongo. FPR imaze gufata ubutegetsi, mbere y’uko hanashira ibyumweru bibiri gusa , wowe wahise utahuka, utitaye ku bwicanyi bwari bumaze kuba, utitaye kuba wari umukwe wa Sindikubwabo washinjwaga kuyobora igihugu cyakoreye jenoside abatutsi, utitaye kuba ari wowe wakoze amaliste yose y’imiryango y’abatutsi yatanze abana babo ngo bajye mu nkotanyi kwitoza ibya gisirikare, wahise utaha wakiranwa amaboko yombi. Kuki FPR yakugiriye icyizere kingana gityo mu gihe abandi bategetsi yabicaga urubuzo cyangwa ikabajyana mu magereza? Uwavuga ko uri umwe mu bagejeje FPR ku butegetsi, mbese yaba akubeshyeye ?
    Uwavuga se ko U Rwanda ari wowe waruroshye mu kangaratete, ukarugeza aho FPR yashakaga, hari icyo yaba akubeshyeye ho?
    Kuba bagenzi bawe mwakoranye bwa Habyarimana, na Nsengiyaremye, na Uwiringiyimana na Sindikubwabo barishwe ureba, abandi bakaregwa gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, ndetse abenshi bakaba bagiye kuzagwa muri gereza, uri aho uzi neza ko nta ruhare rwabo wigeza wereka Abanyarwanda n’isi, wumva umutima utakurya?
    Ese ukurikije amaperereza wakoraga mu gihugu, ko kandi no ku ngoma ya FPR wakomeje kuba mu nzego z’ubutegetsi zimenya imiterere y’igihugu, ko abahutu bishwe ku bwinshi mu bwisanzure , wasanze byari mu mugambi wateguwe na nde?
    13. Ibyumweru bibiri gusa nyuma yuko FPR ifashe ubutegetsi, aho wari mu mujyi wa Goma muri Kongo nko mu mataliki ya 25 ukwezi kwa karindwi, nyuma ya saa sita, uhita wambuka umupaka usanga inkotanyi nta bwoba na buke ufite ? icyo cyizere wakivanaga he? Waba se hari igihe wigeze kugira ubwo uterwa ubwoba n’aya maliste yose wakoraga, ntunatinye kuyaha ibinyamamakuru byigenga ngo abaturage bamenye uko abana b’abatutsi bagenda buri munsi basanga inkotanyi , kuki ibyo bitaguteye ubwoba? Cyangwa gutangaza ayo maliste uyashyira hanze byari muri gahunda yawe yo gufasha FPR ?
    Reka tujye ku butabera mpuzamahanga tutanaretse na gacaca .
    -Kugeza ubu urukiko mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho kuburanisha ibyaha bya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, rwabuze ibimenyetse byerekana itegurwa ry’umugambi wo gukora jenoside, bivuze ko nta jenoside yigeze itegurwa kubera ko nta bimenyetso by’umugambi byigeze bibaho.
    -Wowe nk’umuntu wari ushinzwe ibiro bikuru by’ipereza mu gihe navuga ko wenda uwo mugambi wategurwaga, haba hari ibimenyetso wigeze ubona ngo ube warabihaye ubutegetsi bushya bwa FPR ?
    -Ko mu myaka irenga 22 FPR imaze k’ubutegetsi, ko wayikoreye mu myanya itandukanye, ukayibera minister w’ubuhinzi, ukayibera ministre w’ububanyi n’amahanga, waba hari umuntu uwo ari we wese, haba mu Rwanda cyangwa mu mahanga cyangwa urwego urwo ari rwo rwose wahaye ibimenyetso by’uko hari umugambi wo gukora jenoside mbere y’uko ikorwa ?
    -Waba uvuga se ko waba utarabimenye ?
    -Haba se hari bamwe mu bakozi bawe baguhishe ko hari umugambi wa jenoside wategurwaga , ariko bakanga kubiguhamo raporo ?
    -Mu bushakashatsi bwawe, uhereye 1994 kugeza uyu munsi, unongeyeho imyaka wabayemo senateri, waba warigeze na rimwe wibuka ikimenyetso icyo ari cyo cyose wigeze kubona cyangwa gutangaho raporo cy’itegurwa ry’umugambi wo gukora jenoside ?
    -None se niba wowe wari ushinzwe ibiro by’iperereza , ukaba umunyabutare, uwari ministre w’intebe Agathe Uwilingiyimana , nawe akaba umunyabutare, sobukwe akaba umunyabutare, ibiro by’iperereza wayoboraga bikaba byari muri opposition, niba nta bimenyetso mwigeze mubona, ubwo abaturage bazavuga ko ari nde wateguye umugambi wa jenoside ?
    – Kuki batakujyanye mu rukiko mpuzamahanga TPIR- ARUSHA kubabwira ko habayeho umugambi wo gutegura jenoside cyangwa ngo uvuge ko nta mugambi wabayeho, ibyo ubyakira ute ?
    -Wowe n’uwitwa général Gatsinzi Marcel wahise ayobora ingabo ubwo jenoside yatangiraga, FPR imaze gufata ubutegetsi, mwembi yabashyize mu butegetsi bwayo , muba muri guverinoma. Byashoboka bite ko mwembi mwaba mwarabuze ibimenyetso by’itegurwa ry’umugambi wa jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, niba byarabayeho koko?**
    -Ubwo Général Gatsinzi Marcel yahamagazwaga mu rukiko mpuzamahanga Arusha mu rubanza rwa Bagosora, abajijwe ibibazo ku byerekeranye no kumenya niba mu Rwanda haba harabayeho koko umugambi wo gutegura jenoside yagombaga gukorerwa abatusti, yavuze ko uwo mugambi ntawo yigeze amenya, haba mbere y’uko aba chef d’état-major ubwo Habyarimana yari amaze gupfa cyangwa mu minsi yari chef d’état- major ndetse na nyuma y’aho. Ibi ni nabyo urukiko rwahereyeho ruhanagura kuri Bagosora umugambi wo gutegura jenoside yakorewe abatutsi.
    -Ikibazo, ubwo se wowe uwakujyana imbere y’urukiko urwo ari rwo rwose, wasobonura ute ko habayeho jenoside yakorewe abatutsi itarigeze itegurwa ?
    -Waba se waranze gutanga ibimetso kandi ubifite ?
    -Wowe na Gatsinzi Marcel se, iyo muhuye mwiherereye, ni ibiki muvugana byerekeranye n’uruhari rwanyu mu gufasha FPR kugera ku butegetsi ?
    – Mbese musanga FPR yarabahaye ibiruta kure ibyo mwari mwarabonye mu butegetsi bwa Habyarimana, haba mu kugira uburenganzira bwo kwisanzura, mu kuvuga no kubaho mu mudendezo, mwebwe hamwe n’ababakomokaho ?
    -Uwagusaba gucira urubanza Sindikubwaho, Sobukwe wabaye pereziza w’agateganyo mu gihe cya jenoside, wamushinja ibihe byaha ? Wamuha gihano ki ?
    -Niba warabaye igikoresho cya FPR mu buryo butandukanye mbere y’uko FPR ifata ubutegetsi, n’ki wishimira mu bikorwa byawe wakoze mu kuyifasha kugera ku butetsi ? Cyangwa se uramutse ubonye umwanya wo kwigaya no kwicira urubanza, n’iki wumva warahemukiyeho abaturage b’u Rwanda bishwe urubozo kuva aho FPR ifatiye ubutegetsi, tutaretse n’abishwe kuva mu mwaka wa 1990 ubwo FPR yateraga yiyemeje kuzafata ubutegetsi ku ngufu ?
    – Utubazo tw’amatsiko : Mbese wakoreye FPR ? Niba ari byo wayikoreye kuva ryari ? Mbese washoje inshingano zose yari yaraguhaye mu gihe wari umukuru w’ibiro by’iperereza ku ngoma ya Agathe Uwiringiyimana no ku ya Nsengiyaremye?
    -Ko mu Rwanda hari inzego za l’ONU bitaga MINUAR, waba warigeze kwegera inzego zayo ngo uzibwire ko mu Rwanda hari umugambi wo gukora jenoside ?
    – Mbese uwakubaza atya : Uwaguha ngo FPR ive ku butegetsi , Paul Kagame ntabe agifite ubutegetsi n’ubushobozi bwo gutera ubwoba, mbese birashoboka ko wazatanga ubuhamya ku bwicanyi bwose ingabo za FPR zakoreye abaturage bo mu bwoko bw’abahutu, n’abatutsi batavuga rumwe na Kagame kuva muri 1990 -1994 kugeza uyu munsi ? Iki gisubizo kirakenewe cyane.
    Abanyarwanda benshi cyangwa bose bazashimishwa n’uko wazabaha ibisubizo by’ibi bibazo byose ?

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27250

    Abahatuye barinubira kutagira amazi hafi bavuga ko bavunika cyane bajya mu mibande kandi nyamara ngo bari bamaze gushyikira iterambere kuko amashanyarazi yo bayashyikiriye.

    Nikuze Angelique umwe muri aba baturage ati « Kujya kuvoma ni imvune ikabije ino kuko tujya mu mibande kandi ugasanga hari abantu benhsi kuhava bigatwara amasaha».

    Nk’uko imibare ibigaragaza muri aka karere ubu harabarirwa imiyoboro y’amazi igera kuri 24, ifite uburebure bwa km 349.55 yagiye yubakwa mu bihe binyuranye.

    Mu mwaka wa 2010 abaturage bagera kuri 65% ni bo bari bamaze kwegerezwa amazi meza naho mu mwaka wa 2015 bakaba bari bageze kuri 76.4%.

    Icyo basaba ubuyobozi ni ukubafasha kubona amazi hafi yabo kuko ngo uku gukura amazi kure bidindiza imirimo yabo nk’ubuhinzi kuko bakererwa kugera mu mirima babanje kuvoma, kandi bashaka no kuvomesha bikabahenda kuko bayashyikira ijerekani ibatwaye amafaranga 200.

    Ahishakiye Valens ati “Dukeneye amazi rwose, aho tuvoma iyo uri umunyeshuri ubwo urasiba kuko ni kure kandi haza amazi make hari abantu igitero, andi badaha ni mabi aba arimo n’udukoko”

    Ubuyobozi bw’aka karere ariko bugaragaza ko butari buzi ko aka kagari katagira amazi.

    Rutaburingoga Jerôme, umuyobozi w’aka karere ka Gisagara ariko, arizeza abaturage ko hagiye kohererezwa impuguke mu by’amazi mu rwego rwo gushaka uko yahagezwa vuba.

    Ati “Aho nari nzi ni muri Mukindo, ariko aha Dahwe na ho tugiye guhita twoherezayo abagenzura banapime ibyo hagomba maze bishyirwe mu ngengo y’imari”

    Ubuyobozi bw’Akarere ka Gisagara buvuga ko n’ubwo ariko amazi meza ataragezwa hose, bukomeje kongera imbaraga kugirango abaturage bayashyikire.

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27273

    UBUTUMWA BUSHYA BW’UMUYOBOZI W’INGABO ZA FOCA BWA TALIKI YA 5/9/2016

    1. INAMA NKURU IDASANZWE YA FDLR YABAYE 24-30 KANAMA 2016, yahaye imbabazi abigumuye bagiye muri CNRD, kuba bagarutse mu rugaga FDLR bitarenze taliki ya 30 Nzeli 2016.
    2. Turasaba ahari ibirindiro byose by’ingabo za FOCA, kubakira bakabitumenyesha.
    3. Bacunguzi, Ifasha uwifashije !

    UMUYOBOZI W’INGABO ZA FOCA
    (SE)

    NOUVELLE PROLONGATION DE DÉLAI AUX MUTINS, MESSAGE DU COMMANDEMENT FOCA DU 05 SEPTEMBRE 2016 :

    1. Portons à votre connaissance que la réunion extraordinaire du Comité Directeur des FDLR du 24 au 30 Août 2016, par clémence, a donné encore chance aux brebis égarés dans CNRD, la date butoire d’avoir réintégré les FDLR au plus tard le 30 Septembre 2016.
    2. Demandons aux unités toutes FOCA de les accueillir et nous le signaler ! .
    3. Bacunguzi, bravoure, Dieu dispose ! .
    Large diffusion.

    COMMANDANT FOCA
    (Sé)

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27275

    SOS for the congolese hutus:
    Since more than two decades, the rwandan hutus were massacred without any reaction from the international community. Currently, it is the turn of the congolese hutus who are condemned in the same way as the rwandan hutu. With the operation code-named ” Sokola2″ Head Brigadier General Bruno Mandevu Township, operation which seems to aim for the extermination of the rwandophone, not counting the previous victims, since 25/08/2016, the victims become numerous. Below are a few cases in bwito, rutchuru territory:
    1. Mr Tubanambazi Zirimwabagabo, 42 years old, seriously injured by the firing volunteers fardc military to rusuri / Kyara, bwito, territory rutchuru locality mutanda on 01/09/2016.
    2. Mr Baraka Kayitani, 19 years old, seriously injured by the firing volunteers fardc military to rusuri / Kyara, bwito, territory rutchuru on 01/09/2016.
    3. Mr Jimi, aged 60, death by bullets fired voluntarily by the military fardc rusuri / kyara bwito rutchuru territory on 01/09/2016.
    4. Two Congolese Hutu civilians killed by the bomb launched by the military fardc kinyatsi near nyanzare EC 28/08/2016.
    5. A lady shot and injured at kiyeye on 25/08/2016, hospitalized in mweso since the end of August. And resulting in the separation of women of their babies.
    In the same direction xenophobic, general Bruno Mandevu Township in complicity with the cnrd, party founded by Colonel Dissident Irategeka Wilson EC 04/09/2016, come to board force rwandan hutu refugees (a hundred), who had taken refuge in the Camp of internally displaced persons rutchuru kabizo (territory), after having been subjected to inhumane treatment which dispossession of their property, and until now, their destination remains unknown.

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27280

    We will try here to describe what the terms Hutu , Tutsi and Twa were referring initially, before being absorbed and sedimented by the discourse of European anthropology, and then reintroduced into the political vocabulary Interlake.

    We will try at first to determine the geographical and cultural politics of the population subdivision between Hutu , Tutsi and Twa guided by the following questions:

    • This distinction is it a characteristic of the ancient civilization Inter-lake?

    • Is it a phenomenon peculiar to particular cultures or interconnecting spaces sociopolitical and cultural contexts?

    • This distinction she covers everywhere the same direction?

    Then we will ask the question of the historicity of the categories Hutu , Tutsi and Twa asking us include:

    Can we assess the historical depth?

    • Is the categories originally distinct from one another or, on the contrary, identification categories correlated process from internal differences within a population?

    • The emergence of these categories is it recognizable?

    • The meaning of ”  Hutu  “,” Twa “ and “Tutsi” has it evolved?

    • Is it historically ethnonym assumed or assigned? In other words, is it prescribed identities and suffered, or otherwise self claimed and assumed?

    __

    Growing phenomenon Hutu -Tutsi-Twa
    The terms Hutu , Tutsi and Twa are found in Burundi and Rwanda with close meanings. But these three municipalities, specifically Barundi of Burundi add a fourth, that of Ganwa which means representatives of large families that were chosen rulers and leaders. Like the Babito of Bunyoro, this group attributed the natural vocation of government and considered different from other segments of the population.

    Further south, the elite pastoral Buha was commonly referred to as “Tusi or Tutsi  , “but the term Hutu , was generally not widely used as a nickname by locals. As for the term Twa seems unusual in Giha.

    Spaces in the Tanzanian Eastern Rwanda, there is little evidence landmark vernacular terms Hutu and Tutsi, it is the same in parts of Uganda have never been included in the ancient kingdom of Rwanda . However, the term is found in omutwa languages Kiga, Nkore and Nyoro.

    West of Burundian and Rwandan space: Bushi at Buhavu at Buhunde Balega and in Sile, we find a class of people called by different names derived from the root twa “murhwa” language Shi and Haavu; mutswa in Tembo. These terms generally refers to groups residing in the forest practice hunting and gathering and are often attached to the pygmies. In the end Tembo namwamitswa (banamwamitswa plural) means a pygmy woman who slept with the king ritually after his enthronement.

    Found in this region, a category of “Baluzi” or “Baluci” that some Western observers have equated the Tutsi, but the occurrence of the categories ” Hutu  “ and “Tutsi” is not proven. In Bantu languages of western Lake Kivu root luzi has a political connotation of “superiority” and “nobility” , which resembles that of the category Ganwa Burundi. In these territories whose paramount chiefs were called Bami, as in Rwanda, it seems a significant body of auxiliary power here and there Baluzi appointed Tutsi, occupied similar functions. But beyond this functional analogy, the history of settlement in the region, and that of amoko we mentioned earlier shows that it would be wrong to infer bio-ethnic identity common these different groups.

    In Ijwi Island, which was very temporarily attached to Rwanda under Kigeri Rwabugiri IV, are also found Baluzi. But we do not find here not more qualified indigenous Hutu or Tutsi. For islanders Havu tradition, this differentiation was also not relevant to distinguish Rwandan them: they called collectively migrants from Rwanda “Badusi” , a term derived from Tutsi.

    This overview of the neighboring countries of Rwanda can measure fairly widespread root “twa” and the restriction of the geographical terms Hutuand Tutsi, in a region of Africa where population movements, cultural exchanges and matrimonial alliances were multiple. The interconnecting social historian Jean-Pierre Chrétien has rightly called Rwanda and Burundi to “bastion the phenomenon Hutu -Tutsi “ . In fact, outside of the geographical area of Rwanda and Burundi and their immediate neighborhood to the east and south, no region of the Interlake area has developed such a categorization of the population. In the wake of speculation explorers, researchers have attempted to reconcile the Rwandan-Burundian distinction Hutu -Tutsi-Hima torque Bairu we met Nkore but it is only an analogy of social organizations.

    This restriction of use area identifications Hutu and Tutsi supports the idea of a secondary character categories Hutu , Tutsi. The most convincing hypothesis is that these categories Rwanda-Burundi are the result of processes of internal differentiation within communities with common historical, political and cultural yet to be identified. The stories of the origins of Rwanda they allow us to advance in the understanding of the genesis of these categories? We will learn from these potential traditions after describing the main myths that underpin the social and political imagination of the ancient kingdom of Rwanda.

    Hutu , Tutsi and Twa in oral traditions
    Dating what is probably incorrectly named “oral tradition” is a problem unsolved to this day. The occurrence of the terms Hutu , Tutsi and Twa in Rwanda oral histories can not itself assess the age of these terms. In the chapter entitled “Chronicles Rwandan mythical and historical” , we had the opportunity to meet the changes appeared in the historical narratives produced a bard another without altering the fundamental structure and themes of the stories.

    This finding does not necessarily mean that the stories ibitekerezo are shaping historical memory unchanged since its initial formulation closer to the events narrated. Eeu regard to the general conditions of human transmission, it seems reasonable to develop stories that have been frozen by their written form, not as the result of a collective memory unaltered but as the result of being in successive forms, the modern and carved over generations canvas patterns combining symbolic immemorial and contemporary concerns of the narrators and their audiences. Following formula Jean-Pierre Chrétien, it is likely that the final texts of historical narratives in general and those founding narratives in particular, amalgamate several memories and they must be decrypted as palimpsests superimposing several layers narrative.

    Sabizeze-Kigwa and Ibimanuka
    We begin our pilgrimage “mythical archaeological” terms Hutu , Tutsi and Twa in the universe of stories ibitekerezo, by exposing the myth of the birth of Sabizeze, the ancestor of the rulers of Rwanda. Here is the basic plot of this story to capture the imagination of Rwanda:

    Sabizeze is the son of the King of Heaven from above or King, whose name is Royal Nkuba (Lightning), his own name being Shyerezo (The Last End, The Outcome). His mother one of the wives of the heavenly sovereign is Queen Gasani “The sacred” .

    The King wanted Nkuba expand its empire by conquest. He gathered his counselors, and explained his desire. The Board engaged the king to consult the omens. Soothsayers-abanyambuto, ie those “seed” , a bull sélectionnèrent appropriate, collected saliva King called “seed” for the occasion. Ritual gestures made, abanyambuto made to swallow the liquid ominous bull before sacrifice. It is by reading the entrails of animals, and “seeded” by the fluid that became prominent concluded that the project would be realized heavenly sovereign, but not Shyerezo itself, but not a son who was yet unborn.

    When the soothsayers had returned to the palace to report on their consultation Gasani Queen, on the advice of her counselor Impanvu (Cause), stole the heart of the sacrificial bull, placed it in a pot and sprinkled Erythrina daily milk for nine months. At the end of this period, she found in the container a little baby floating in the curd. She called Sabizeze “The use of opportunity” . Nkuba wanted to delete the child born under circumstances so strange, but the grace of smiling infant had because of the deadly intent.

    During his adolescence Sabizeze left home following an argument, and“piercing” the floor of heaven, which is the limit of the earth, “fell to the East” . He then took the name of Kigwa, “The Dropped” . It was under this name that he founded, without knowing it, an embryo kingdom, which became, at the time of his son Muntu, the “Human” , the Kingdom of Humans, Abantu. Thus the son of Nkuba realized unwittingly, responding to the circumstances of the moment, the big project that Heavenly Father had designed.

    Myths of the first dynasty narrate the adventures of Sabizeze during his childhood and youth in the sky, and once on earth, with its celestial companions, relations between “Those of Heaven” and Ibimanuka “Those found on Earth” Abasangwa -butaka that marriage be based on“Kingdom of Earth” . Also, the Rwandan rulers of the dynasty nyiginya, descending Nkuba ultimately, they are of heavenly origin. More generally, the offspring of the first line are mestizos of heaven and earth.

    Sabizeze Kigwa fell on the ground, with his brother and sister and a couple of servants twa east of Rwanda, near the big rock Ikinani, the “good behavior” , in which they took refuge . They fraternized with the local hospitality granted them. In return, the children of the Heavenly thunder gave the son of earth, ruled by King Kabeja a little fire they had brought with them from heaven, and they learned them all purposes.

    Later Kigwa conceived a son with his sister, he named Muntu, “The human” . The denier is metaphorically the father of all men – Muntu nor w’Abantu bose – instituted the first dynasty of the kings of Rwanda.

    It should be noted that this part of the oral tradition Rwandan probably does not only Rwanda, understood in the modern sense, but on the uRwanda, that is to say “the world” . This is clearly stated in the previous statement, or isi uRwanda yose, “Rwanda is the world” . Whenever the founding narratives mention the term or phrase uRwanda uRwanda Rugari the “big uRwanda” he meant “the world” that is to say, the planetary realm of Muntu, “Humans” , which distinguishes uRwanda RWA Gasabo, “the country Gasabo” , that is to say, the tiny territory considered the birthplace of the future Rwandan state that had its epicenter Mount Gasabo.

    Vansina Rwanda recalls that the term literally means “the area occupied by a swarm or a scattering” is a vast space. Originally, the term was always used in Rwanda to adding a marker specifying the place mentioned.“Gasabo The dispersal” and indicated the area occupied by people who spread from Gasabo, “Rwanda Kamonyi” , the people who spread Kamonyi. In historical accounts mwami could say “my Rwanda” and be told “tone Rwanda” to designate the area inhabited by all those who obeyed him. And find there in a historical narrative, recounting the deeds of Ruganzu Ndori the following dialogue between the heroic conqueror and his faithful messenger Kavuna.

    Ndori asked:

    Mbwira uko uRwanda rwa data rumeze [Tell me how is the father of Rwanda].

    Kavuna said:

    Imigezi yarakamye [The rivers are dried]

    inkoko zirabikira mu magi , [sing in hens eggs]

    baralilira abana mu za banyma nes  ; [children crying in the wombs of their mothers]

    none ngwino uvune uRwanda rwa so . [Then just save your father Rwanda]

    Still according to the founding narratives, Gihanga, a descendant of Sabizeze-Kwiga is the eponymous ancestor of all Rwandans who define themselves as mythically “bene Gihanga” “children Gihanga. “ The name means Gihanga “Founder” . This key figure in Rwandan culture has long been regarded as a historical figure.

    The stories that we discussed so far must be understood not as the case history of a memory, but as the founding myths of links, establishing a political community of historical imagination. Jean-Pierre Chrétien rightly points out that, in societies of oral traditions, narratives of origin have to be based on “social charters and policies, kinds of unwritten constitutions, founding an order whose legitimacy is thus predicated on the narrative mode. But the immutability of this order is as mythical as the supposed fixity of the story supposed to express. Quasi-literary formalization of the latter gives both stability and consistency aesthetic and symbolic richness particular. ‘

    A note should be made here: if these stories evoke foundations marginally Batwa through the couple of servants who accompanied Kigwa in its fall on earth, they do not use at any time the terms “Tutsi” and ”  Hutu  “ outside Mututsi own name which is rigged half-brother Sabizeze-Kigwa. The fundamental differentiation which is posed by origin myths is that between the ibimanuka of abasangwa butaka, ie beings “from the sky” and those“found on earth” . This pattern is not strictly symbolic Rwandan we find particularly Buganda with Kintu character.

    The characters in these stories echo the politics of Rwanda seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth century. They refer in clan landscape refracted through reference to the dynastic amoko from Kigwa and Gihanga to amoko matridynastiques from Mututsi amoko and considered by the court tradition of central role as custodians of ritual ubuse.

    This distribution of the eminent symbolic functions are found in the ubwiru an institution essential to the legitimation of kingship. “Three major biru or” kings “ rituals came from each of these three groups respectively Tsobe a Kono and Singapore. The Bacyaba also had a “king laugh” every rule. Mwiru tsobe the “king” in Bumbogo represented a lineage ritual associated with the cult of the firstfruits of sorghum, which also provided batabazi, that is to say “liberators” supposed to sacrifice in war to save the country when it was threatened. It should be noted, however, that Rutsobe their eponymous ancestor, is very marginal in line Gihanga. As for Mwiru kono, he was also Bumbogo in charge of the estate, but this function was created only during the reign of Cyirima Rugwe, the second kings truly historic (after Ruganzu Bwimba) in the sixteenth century. The Mwiru Singapore finally returns especially in narrative cycle Gihanga through Barenge Dynasty, while the cycle is rather Kigwa before the “indigenous” Bazigaba.

    Myths of origin are therefore echo the situation of clans in Rwanda during the nineteenth century in an approximate way or shifted. The most influential positions in the pre-colonial Rwanda we know are not necessarily the dominant roles staged in legends and Kigwa Gihanga. These fault lines led to wonder if the secondary roles were not introduced in the course of history, each group having to justify its presence in the Rwandan society representation in the corpus which refers to the fundamental national collective memory . We shall return to this dialectic of periodic reconstruction.

    Gahutu , and Gatutsi Gatwa
    Myths about the origin of the difference between Batwa and Tutsi Hutu do not belong to this body linked to the tradition of the court (iby’ibwami), but are, it seems rather popular tradition (ibyo rubanda muri).

    Here is one of them: “The myth of the eldest month”

    A man named Kibaza (eternal interrogator) arrived in Rwanda while the country was still a forest. He cleared the forest, cultivated and made planting. The days passed. He fathered three successive boys grew up together like twins. The eldest, Gatwa played the spoiled child of gluttony and lightness monopolized his heart Gahutu , he loved farming and helping her mother with housework, but he had little intelligence Gatutsi passed his two brothers in growth, he passed agility and intelligence, and added to it the art of flattery and cunning.

    Kibaza cultivated sorghum during Werurwe moon (lunar month corresponding to March-April) and the puny harvested during Tumba (dry season). He planted the beans for Kaboza (December-January) and the sun Mutarama (January-February) abîmait in full bloom.

    He said: “If I sent someone in Kimenyi (the scientist), he would tell me what is the eldest moons and I know well what is the time of sowing and the harvest. “ He gathered his son and said, “Prepare sufficient provision and leave promptly at Kimenyi ask of me what is the eldest of months.Gatwa is the oldest forward the message. And you Gahutu if Gatwa forget something reminds him. About Gatutsi, it will keep you company. ‘

    On the way Gatwa who wore the provisions ate unbeknownst to his brothers. Gahutu asked for sweet people they met and ate for the way he ate also gleaning ears of sorghum that walking. Gatutsi took care of the food for fear they do not comfortable. He sank a rope around the belly and waited Gatutsi who had hitherto listened without moving even heard the words of the woman to her husband: “It was really well:” koko Ukuri Izina if ryo muuntu “name that is not the person! Should inform you as if you did not know that the eldest month ukwakira that welcomes all seeds: the rain falls and beans are planted, finger millet is sown, the sweet potatoes are grown, squash, yams and many other seeds are in the ground? – It seems to me that this is so, replied Kimenyi. “ When the couple were asleep, Gatutsi able to get up and join the layer of his brothers.

    The next Kimenyi deceived the children by telling them that the elder was Mutarama months. He did that Kibaza not know the time of culture and is hungry. Children returned to the home. When they arrived, their father asked what was the Gatwa message: he said to his father that the elder is Mutarama moons because he had heard Gahutu . Gatutsi corrected and said it is Gahutu who got this response Kamenyi, but in reality is the eldest moons ukwakira and he told how Kamenyi sought to deceive them.

    Kibaza remembered the days of his will, he made Gatutsi the head of the family Gahutu should obey him and take care of the hard work of the earth. About Gatwa he will no consideration of person will be taken away and live those things that delighted his jokes will give him.

    The myth of the jar of milk is also well known and often quoted. Here are the essential framework:

    Imana, happy God of the hills, which sought to entrust the herd of cows in Rwanda. One evening, he went down on his favorite ground. He told Gatwa, Gahutu Gatutsi and a jar of milk. Having done so, ascended Imana in the Celestial Empire. In the morning he returned to the scene at the end of the night ancestor, see that the three men had his jar of milk.Leaving his first sleep, Gahutu had thirst. He drank milk and was back to bed.

    At dawn, when the night” said when calves stir” Gatwa had struggled in her sleep, her jar was reversed, the earth drank the milk. When the sun had Bulyazuba the country where they eat the sun, Imana Gatutsi found crouching with his jar of milk and sure. Seeing Imana, Gatutsi swiftly removed the lid and are well-bred people as a drink offering covered was an insult.

    ” You do not like my milk? asked God – If Lord replied Gatutsi, but I thought you’d come back to Rwanda, our country is so beautiful. And you would be thirsty. So I kept it for you. Wood Lord.” Then Imana told Gatutsi “Ganza reigns! “He cursed Gatwa and made a pariah among his brothers and gave the order to Gahutu be subordinate to his brother Gatutsi.

    The test of the jar of milk is sometimes supplemented by another which is to build a hut on the rock, and only Gahutu successful manifesting his practical, technical competence and his taste for domestic life. In yet another version, Gatutsi retains its intact and receives milk cows Gahutufew drops of milk on her hands and manifest its value in his work, and the woman dropped into her lap and will function to give birth, as to Gatwa, he drinks all showing that there is nothing to expect from him gluttony.Another judgment specifies that Gatutsi Traíra cow, Gahutu Traíra fields and forest Gatwa Traíra.

    Peter Smith commented, philosophy of the story of the eldest moons, in which the three brothers are responsible for bringing a message of life, the answer to avoid starvation. ”  In all versions of this tale Gahutu Gatwa go and commit the same errors: precipitation, greed and neglect, illness, inappropriate sleep and ignorance are the links of the same chain and make man the prisoner’s death . In contrast, self-control, abstinence, measurement, to ensure the provision, courage, discretion are virtues attributed to Gatutsi. These qualities provide the protective role of guardian of the secrets of life: those of fertility and the cycle of the seasons. The legitimacy of its rule is based on its role as mediator between the forces of heaven and the organization of life on earth. ‘

    The importance of respect for life is staged in another story that also disqualifies Gatwa.

    Imana called Tutsi and highlighting their intelligence, they offer: You are the only class interesting weapons here, get rid of others. Tutsi reflect the usefulness and other refuse. The Hutu thinking and refuse to turn, because they need Tutsi to arbitrate conflicts and protect them, and Twa to make pots and fun. When it was the turn of the Twa, they darken without thinking and Imana arrest them and cursed. They can no longer bear arms under the orders of the Tutsi.

    In another version, the Twa are also refuse and women, tired of being mocked by men, which darken to kill them. Imana stops them, exposes them the disadvantages of their conduct, and they admit that they had not thought of it. Imana decrees as to carry weapons must first know and think it poses for women, the absolute ban on carrying weapons.

    The reasons for these etiological narratives are not properly Rwandan and are found especially in Nyoro traditions: the names of the protagonists are no longer Gahutu , and Gatutsi Gatwa but Kakama, Kahima and Kairu, eponymous ancestors of kings (bakama) of Bahima and Bairu.

    Ruhanga which is the origin of everything, endowed humans all that is necessary to their existence. He created the sun, the night, moon, birds, herbs, tools (knife, hammer, ax), livestock and fire. Nkya Mba Ruhanga brother had four son, the elder called Kantu (small thing) and three met the same name Kana (small child). This posed a problem when the father called son as it was one that presented itself.

    To end this confusion, Nkya Mba organized a contest that will allow him to give each son’s name would suit him. He summoned them to his home and gave each of them a pot of milk (ikisahi) and then sent them away. On the way, Nkya Mba had placed various objects: a basket of sorghum, sweet potatoes, a cushion herbs, an ax, a knife, a rope used to tie the legs during milking cows and an ox’s head. Reached this place, the oldest and the youngest abandoned pots of milk entrusted by the father. The first began to eat the food. Since there ¬ rear VAIT not finish everything, he seized the pad herbs, put him on the head and took the rest. As the youngest, he preferred to take the bull’s head.

    Ruhanga organized a second round. After the evening milking, he gave back a pot of milk at each of the three children and asked them to hold until morning. Awkward, the youngest spilled a little milk, he begged his brothers who agreed to add a few drops each and pot was filled again, in the middle of the night, the eldest threw all her milk in the morning and found himself in the hands empty.

    Following these tests, Ruhanga imposed a name to each. The eldest, who was overthrown and taken all the sorghum, which would be responsible renamed Kairu cultures, the second of which the jar was half full name would be responsible Kahuma and cattle, the third who had yet his pot full of milk and took the head of beef is called Kakama. Ruhanga gave him the power to govern and rule his brothers on the Kitara. It was he who, according to tradition, was the first ruler of Kitara and gave them as the kings that followed (abakama).

    In another version, and his wife Nyamuhanga Nyabagabe begot a child they named Kintu; Kintu who became the first king of Kitara married and conceived three children: Kairu, and Kahima Kakama. Shortly before dying Kintu would appoint his successor, he presented to his son three things: a piece of iron, container and wood of a tree trunk. Who then asked everyone to choose the object that seemed to them the most important Kairu should choose the piece of iron, container and took Kahima Kakama bore his choice on the wood. Kintu told them that each had chosen his vocation: the piece of iron hoe representing the Kairu: he would take care of the crops, container wood Kahima meaning the pot for milking cows: they take care of the livestock timber Kakama of designating the drum: it is sovereign.

    As seen stories of origins have a value etiological and tend to justify a social division of labor and the rule of the monarchical function.Variations of these stories reflect, as kingdoms , the diversity of socio-political configurations but they do no ¬ opposition staged a racial type as the central characters of these myths are brothers.

    Rwandan mythical references also establish the brotherhood of all Banyarwanda along the hierarchy defining the dominant values of society.Not surprisingly, these myths have not failed to be taken, variously interpreted either by increasing the original brotherhood Gahutu , and Gatwa Gatutsi and thus of all Rwandans, or to legitimize the domination of one social or otherwise denounce a situation of bondage centuries.

    Josiah Semujanga denounces anachronistic ideological interpretations have been made of this legend. For him, the essential function of myths Gihanga son would explain the origin of patrilineal and qualities due to the head of the lineage Rwanda. The threshold of death, he reports, each father could Recapture the narrative of events Gahutu , and Gatwa Gatutsi to designate his successor as head of the umuryango or inzu. And he concludes: “The signifiers Hutu , Tutsi, and Twa are only moral attributes of the triptych Munyarwanda. Only implicitly monarchy nyiginya to establish its legitimacy, has used the myth of Gihanga Kigwa or to make an ally of the Tutsi political power, this does not keep the myth founder of the genesis of a line Munyarwanda. ‘

    Whatever the interpretations that are assigned meaning “Twa”, ”  Hutu  “,” Tutsi “the fact remains that each of them is linked to a different semantic field. “Gatwa” refers to spoiled child, greed, forgetfulness, carelessness, curse, lightweight, non-compliance and ritual restrictions; Gahutu  “refers to a worker, love of the land, greed, simplicity, reduced intelligence …;” Gatutsi “refers agile, temperance, control, intelligence, art flatter ruse. It is therefore at least articulate a hierarchy of reference values of Rwandan society that carry myths.

    Oral traditions and settlement of Rwanda
    The original theory of autochthony Batwa, the ancient settlement but subsequent Bahutu and more recent migration of pastoralists Hamites – Tutsi who have colonized the “first peoples” of Rwanda was sometimes supported by vague reference to Rwandan oral tradition.

    Peter Smith who worked to collect them, as well as the study of folk tales throughout the Great Lakes region reported that if the myths of origins, ibirari, refer to the hierarchy Gatwa, Gahutu Gatutsi and no oral source does not hint at any Tutsi invasion or even an order of establishment of each of these groups. Jean-Pierre Chrétien, history Gahutu , Gatutsi and Gatwa would also marginal in oral traditions and would face patch. Its current popularity much reiteration should use political and ideological twentieth century.

    The same historian also believes that it is the contemporary ideologies that have taken myths and Kigwa Gihanga to these two characters original symbols of a Tutsi invasion from the north. But in these oral traditions are not associated with an ethnic partition of society but rather, as we have already mentioned, the history of Rwanda amoko. In fact many of them refer to the act of Kigwa Gihanga and their mythical genealogies. The amoko some modern dynasties are mentioned in the stories of foundation: Banyiginya Rwanda, Bahondogo Bugesera Bashambo of Ndorwa. The ibirari also refer to the ubwoko which furnish the greatest number of queenmothers bami of Rwanda since the eighteenth century. Are also being amoko abasangwa butaka scenes – they said “found on earth” – Bazigaba, and Bagesera Basinga. The latter, according to Jean-Pierre Chrétien, have founded the “old ruling dynasties across the northern third of Rwanda and is current. Each of these groups is represented in the heads of major royal rituals, called the abiru through Tsobe respective clans, the Bakono, and Basinga. “ The texts of these rituals do they refer to the distinction between Twa, Hutu and Tutsi?

    It is the study of this question relate developments to follow.

    Hutu , Tutsi and Twa in royal rituals “ubwiru”
    The bami nyiginya inaugurated their reign and continued participating in rituals intended on the one hand, to affirm support material and spiritual country, its people, its land, herds, and secondly, to ensure its security and avert the calamities recurring. Each protocol ritual is called “path” Inzira. All these rites is called ubwiru. The meaning of this term is not clear. According to Alexis Kagame, ubwiru mean “secret inviolable”  , but this is an explanation of the esoteric nature of royal rituals and texts related to it, rather than an actual definition. The etymology of this term remains uncertain. It has been suggested a relationship between ubwiru ubwire and the “dark” , understood as a dark veil that covers the earth.Ubwiru would mean “that which is hidden, veiled things” . Mwami and the Queen Mother were umugabekazi officiants main ceremonies. In this function, they were keepers assisted compliance abiru ritual in their various categories, including three main bami were called, as the highest political authority in Rwanda.

    The ritual texts were assigned to specific lineages. They assumed the burden of ensuring the storage and conservation of generations of valuable ways. Within lineages abiru, this transmission was not done necessarily from father to son, for he had not only demonstrate the skills required to learn the “craft” of officiating in ritualistic, but also to become capable of living archives remember by heart long texts, without ever changing anything or forget any detail – under penalty of death, they say.

    The 17 texts ubwiru covered field upstream of the laws and regulations of the kingdom. He prescribed conduct to prevent or overcome the serious crises for the nation to implement rites natural disasters type droughts, floods, livestock disease …; rites to be performed periodically to the opening of hunting, watering cows, premises …; rites to be performed in war; rites concerning the creation of a new sovereign tasks assigned to the descendants of such families or people in such province.

    The terms Hutu Tutsi and Twa are uncommon in the ritual texts. The term”  Hutu  “appears three times in the course of the premises, Inzira y’umuganura with the meaning of “person in the service” of a rite. Thus, during the ceremony umuganura beginnings, the basket containing the sorghum was at the center of the ritual was carried in procession and treated with equal Karinga dynastic drum. The ritual requires that it is a ” muhutu  “ attached to the court belonging to the military training“Intarindwa” bringing it in the basket mwami. This is the end of this reception the basket of firstfruits is given a ”  muhutu any “ , ”  umuhutuubonetse Weese “ procession that carries until the end of the rite. The honor went to the basket of firstfruits is comparable to that visited the royal drum “Karinga.”

    Here is the letter of the channel:

    66

    Bukir umwam akakira [mwami The evening is the act]

    Umuhutu intarindwa w [A Hutu of unapproachable]

    Agahenger ingoma zitarabambura [Guette when the drums sound the alarm]

    Agatindura gicuba cya [To empty the pot just before]

    70

    Akijyanir umutsim akirira [He takes the dough and eat]

    Bikab aho [things left there]

    Ukwezi kukajya gushira [Almost until the end of the moon]

    In this passage, the scribe of the ritual did not see fit to translate Umuhutu.

    If they had decided, translation: ”  Umuhutu intarindwa w “ could be: “One of the servants of the unapproachable. ‘

    Moreover, the term ”  Hutu  “ covers a different meaning. It seems sometimes used to mean “representative of farmers” . In this sense, the ” muhutu  “ is sometimes specified as “descendant of Myaka” . The term“imyaka” , the plural meaning or cereal crops. Myaka could be the name of a mythical ancestor of the farmers. The code also refers to the ”  Hutu  “ by the name of “descendant of Musana and Mumbogo” .

    As Tsoobe, these ”  Bahutu Myaka descendant of Musana and Mumbugo “were probably like some Tsoobe, representatives of farmers ritualistic.This inciterai the yet to interpret the term muhutu in this context to mean“representative ritual farmers” .

    The esoteric code uses the term “Umututsi” when talking about the existence of mwami before his inauguration and his identity when he was still a being common.

    The ubwiru describes the protocol by which the personal being who is called to be the supreme mediator between the country and the forces of Reproductive imana incorporates sovereignty. According ubwiru be mututsi is a condition that leaves mwami by induction. Cowhide that will now place the sheep symbolizes this change.

    Induction protocol specifies as follows:

    91

    Umwam akicara mu Kirambi

    Kuu Ntebe there íintéeko

    Isérereye hw íntaama

    Yĕrejw Akir uumutuutsi

    95

    N áaho yiimyé

    Kukw iyo yiimyé

    Atongéra kwambar intaama

    Yambar Inka gusa

    In French:

    Mwami sits in the middle of the house

    On the throne

    Which has been bound to the skin of a sheep

    Designated as positive when it was still Tutsi

    And when he was inducted

    Because when inducted

    He does not wear sheepskin

    It does a cowhide

    Profane the name of the new sovereign was before the advent and reign name he now charge for carry proclaimed to the people assembled for the occasion. This ritual takes place during the ceremony of the first fruits.

    Here is an excerpt of the ritual text:

    Bagerakukarubanda, umutsoobe mukuru, Ati dor umwami waa rubanda nyu, Izina rv’ubutuutsi or kaanaka, I ry’ubwami or kaanaaka

    When they get to the public the main Tsoobe said:

    “People here is your king. His name is as Tutsi, His name is such a reign “

    The occurrence of the word Twa is much higher than that of the wordsHutu and Tutsi. It appears nineteen times. “This is a first case of a woman without breasts in a ritual to ward off sterility (ikirumbo, lane 2: 10 times), and in another case it is the family from Bwami Twa, Keepers of the Fire Gihanga (channel 6 and channel 17 fire enthronement, during resuscitation Fire Gihanga; 4 times) in the third case, it is the family that owns Twa Mahenehene the official executioner (channel 11, 2 times), and finally the fourth case of the Twa musicians (lanes 7 and 11; 3 times). “If, therefore, the terms Tutsi, Hutu , and Twa are present texts of ubwiru, their use is infrequent.

    Opposition, or even their distinction term by term, not appear anywhere.The recurring themes of ubwiru do however demonstrate a range of concerns that reveal a cluster of values.

    As analyzed Servilien Sebasoni, these values are embodied in ritual figures: Mwami, through mystical and sovereign guarantor of prosperity, fertility and Homeland Security and all living beings; drum emblem of sovereignty ingoma the men, abagabo; women abagore; cows, inka, territory, uRwanda, the people of Rwanda, rubanda, land and culture.

    Hutu , Tutsi and Twa in proverbs and folk tales
    In none have attempted to demonstrate an alleged contempt or mutual distrust between ethnic groups said the statement from proverbs referring to the quality of Hutu , Tutsi or Twa.

    Rhetoric uses Rwandan proverbs actually happy by introducing point-blank in the conversation as authority. But it must be admitted that it is precisely as a process that has value only in terms of performative silence of the party or its ability to respond in the same way one by retorting Another adage.

    Nevertheless, proverbs, adages and other popular-imigani *, show a limited but thought, popularized by its recovery in the common speech, at least partially escapes the control of sacred powers or policies. Examine the proverbial evocations Rwandan mentioning categories Hutu , Tutsi and Twa is essential counterpoint to the study of their occurrences in texts rituals and other traditions tied closely to the course. From their review, which analyzes are possible?

    First introduce some caution about. The interpretation of proverbs poses difficult problems, our developments should be considered as hypotheses and not as sweeping assertions, even when conditional caution does not explicitly emphasize.

    In the introduction to their book listing some 4,500 proverbs, and Crépeau Bizimana that “The interpretation of the proverb is an abstraction, a bit like the concept of mass in physics or the biology of the gene. This is a general idea applicable to various situations and covering an area moving and flexible semantics, whose configuration is constantly changing under the pressure of new applications. ‘

    Like any cultural trait proverb is a component of a system of meanings and system actions. The difficulty is to determine both knowing that each has evolved over time. The risk of anachronism and erroneous interpretations are evident, and, especially the evaluation of the historical depth of such a sentence is often impractical or uncertain, excluding rare cases or index can locate the statement in time.

    This is for example the case of the proverb: Nzamukerekwa or Mwene Senkobwa umutwa. Literally translated this means saying “I’ll show is the son of the Twa Senkobwa  “and means: “When the opportunity arises I will prove that I speak the truth. I’ll show you in flagrante delicto. “ The mention of names Senkobwa historically situates the emergence of this popular expression.

    Simon and Pierre Crépeau Bizimana comment: “Twa Senkobwa was during the reign of Musinga lived hill Nyanza near Butare. Executioner of the court, he remained in the tradition as the executor, including the magician Nkiramacu, the hill Musange character who gave his name to sag between the hills and Ruhande Cyarwa: umukoni wa Nkira . ‘

    But such an index is rare and the vast majority of cases the listener or reader remains in limbo regarding the assessment of seniority awards popular.

    More ancient form can be given a radically new or different meanings depending receive the middle or proverb is stated. A positive trait can change valence. Discretion, the ability to keep a secret can be taken for grades or on the contrary as evidence of a malevolent strategy. Finally note that, as set out in performative referred, the entire meaning of a proverb is apprehensible theory that if we can determine the contexts of utterance. But as we also noted Crépeau and Bizimana, it would be unrealistic to try to determine the actual situational context of each statement. Indeed, given the large number of proverbs identified and their wide circulation, and given that the art of saying lies mainly in its application to new situations, it is clear that the circumstances of time and place, the social event and interlocutors, who constitute the appropriate situation to quote a proverb can vary almost infinitely. These preliminary precautions should not necessarily leading to a radical skepticism.

    Examination of proverbs, here evoking those categories called “ethnic” by colonial anthropology is rich education. The relative frequency of themes, proverbs, consistency or contradictions internal to a thematic networking of reasons, here are valuable in determining intentionality underlying a particular proverb or a series of sayings and reasonably support our conjectures. Thus the analysis of the frequency of occurrence of the termsHutu , Tutsi and Twa certifies first marginality proverbs containing these terms among thousands identified to date. The index of the collection and Crépeau Bizimana mentions 21 occurrences of the term Hutu , Tutsi 17 and 6 Twa. While compiling these researchers is not exhaustive, these frequencies being compared with those topics related to the entity for the principle-imana to humanity and the heart – and umuntu umutima – the exchange and show solidarity marginality proverbs mentioning three categories Hutu , Tutsi and Twa.

    Without going into an analysis of fine content, the popular phrase concealing the words Hutu , Tutsi and Twa, it can be said that the values attached to these terms in proverbs are congruent with those described above in the analysis of imigani featuring Gatwa, Gahutu and Gatutsi. It is important to note that, if the theme of the relationship between strong and weak is recurrent in proverbs, it is exceptionally expressed in terms of opposition Hutu -Tutsi-Twa.

    Hypotheses about the origins and evolution of the termsHutu , Tutsi and Twa
    For Schoenbrun, ancient societies of Africa Great Lakes initially perceived as groups of neighborhoods (ibihugu in Kinyarwanda) distinct from the others. The different variations of radical hanga found in most languages Interlake would initially appeared to express the notion of “foreignness” of neighboring groups in the context of multiculturalism and coexistence of primitive expression groups Bantu, Sudanic, Cushitic … Under this scenario, the process of exchange and interaction between regional communities of different languages would have generated a sense of self which forms have evolved. In the context of mergers and cultural traditions of farming systems differentiated societies later became the term Bantu Mahanga could have initially been applied to communities or individuals who continued to cultivate lifestyles Sudanic, is Sahelian couchite.

    Origin of the term “Twa”
    The term Twa who is not a self-referential term may derive from the logic of qualifying individuals who chose to continue to cultivate their lifestyles based on initial resource forest animals and plants in a company or agro-pastoral activities became dominant.

    In ancient Rwanda, the ethnonym non-territorial ‘Twa’ was used either as a generic term for groups not practicing or agriculture or livestock, or as a term for some communities practicing pottery surajoutait this ethnonym is the term Impunyu distinction between hunter-gatherers who lived in forests and large marshes. Mutual hostility appears to have colored relations between the Twa of the great forests of the western and northern Rwanda and neighboring farmers could reduce hunting first by clearing the forest. “Avoidance behavior and contempt can be mutual characterized relations between Twa and other people. Not only the Twa and the other did not marry them, but for fear of social contamination they did not drink from the same pitcher could not use the same dishes, had their own huts, their own sources of water … Despite these behaviors, a certain symbiosis existed between Twa and other people, because they exchanged the forest products, especially honey, skins game and against agricultural products. ‘

    Stories and anecdotes give Twa an ambivalent image. They are often described as subhuman beings sometimes impure, but they are also praised for their agility, their courage and their musical talents and warlike. Some are friends and spies kings. They also embody wisdom quiet and disillusioned in many stories, comparable to a Nasredin countries of North Africa.

    With the term Twa, Tutsi and Hima those are the three ethnonyms non territorialized who introduced a first distinction within the population space Rwanda. There was apparently no term subsuming it originally common people practicing the dominant agricultural activities.Terminology – note Vansina – suggests that farm life was seen as the normal condition of people which should be distinguished people“different” who practiced a different lifestyle.

    Origin of the term “Tutsi”
    If the term Twa was assigned an ethnonym, the term Tutsi Hima like that seem to have been initially claimed by two ethnonyms specific groups because of their main activity. According to Vansina, “Hima” applied to all farmers in southern Uganda and Buhaya North. Rwanda, Burundi and Karagwe however, “Hima” is designated as common as breeders ‘Tutsi’meant a pastoral elite.

    The connotations of the term and content Tutsi have evolved particularly in the sense of this distinction in societies where farmers became prominent in the political elite. By Jan Vansina always, the choice of the dynasty nyiginya abandon the designation for the Hima Tutsi would be an indication of this trend. The use of the label “Hima” evolve together. From the first quarter of the seventeenth century (during the reign of Mwami Ndori), the words “Tutsi” win prestige, “Hima” will gradually be reserved for Mutara herders and elite people will also use contemptuous designate farmers lesser social status than themselves. This usage is attested in some stories or ibitekerezo “Hima” is used to denote the “small Tutsis” .

    The term is generally considered Tutsi an ethnonym non territorialized.However, Mgr. Kanyamachumbi patient suggests the plausibility of the term Tutsi closer with names. Even though the hypothesis of this researcher seems fragile, as near sound are not evidence of linguistic link, there is no need to explain his reasoning:

    Kanyamachumbi noted that in the North-East Nkore, territory within the space of the current Uganda, a place with a name close to the word Tutsi.It is Nutsi which is less than 200 km from the border of Rwanda. This is the name of an archaeological site. It is mentioned in a list of the official residences of the ancient kings of Bunyoro Kitara, under the name“Omuntutsi” .

    Investigations reveal that archaeologists like Bigo and Mubende Bwera, Ntusi, was a center of sustainable human settlement from the late first and early second millennium BP Excavations have uncovered a fortified center clay, inhabited by a community practitioner, and both the metal and the cultivation of cereals, including sorghum. Ntusi as Bigo fortifications were surrounded by clay. These ancient cities seem to have been abandoned in the sixteenth century.

    From these data Kanyamachumbi asks: “After the fall of the kingdom of Bacwezi, we see that Banyiginya flourish. It did he receive any input from the previous? The question remains open. In any case, nothing excludes a group of people could leave Ntusi to “RWA Rwanda Gasabo” and could revitalize the kingdom and then Banyiginya training. Which would have allowed him to impose on other kingdoms surrounding in the direction of the etymology suggested here, the first people who would or could have been called “Abatutsi” would be part of a group of Rwandans Ntusi have lived in Uganda that would originate. (…) The hypothesis of “Ntusi” simply suggest the origin of a name that could be extended to populations found on the spot, just like the Hutu and Tutsi was extended to all the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Rwanda from the center of the country. Thus, a group who lived or would come to Uganda could become a social reference and pass its name from its environment. ‘

    The plausibility of such a hypothesis is supported by the recurrence of the process by which territorial ethnonyms were used as a reference and identification for their former nationals and descendants of them.

    For example, inside and outside space in Rwanda, from Nduga from Kinyaga and Mulera example, identified themselves and were identified respectively as Abanyanduga, and Abanyakinyaga Abalera. Similarly, today, the name “Banyamulenge  “in South Kivu in the current Congo DRC, is awarded to people who lived in “Mulenge” and then spread to other people who have merged with another to form a single cultural community. We have seen that, according to a similar logic, the label amoko Rwanda was probably also connected households from their expansion. Bugesera for Bagesera, Buha for Baha Bushingo for Bashingo … etc..

    Kanyamachumbi and concluded: “Royal Residence Paradise and ranchers in the area, or Ntutsi” Omuntutsi “as written Karugire was probably well known Banyarwanda and conversely, the people of the royal court Ntutsi knew Rwanda and Banyiginya dynasty. It is therefore possible that the inhabitants of “Ntutsi” or immigrants returned to Rwanda, for example in connection with the disappearance remained a mystery of the dynasty Bacwezi, have adopted the name of their place of origin. There seems to Rwanda itself, a place called “Ibututsi” in Kayanza. This could be, seems he, the origin of the term “umututsi” and “abatutsi” a name that was used first to describe a royal court, a place for cattle and finally persons related to the royal power and exercising the trade of mainly cattle breeders. ‘

    Origin of the term ”  Hutu  “
    The word ”  Hutu  “ , it would not cause an ethnonym. Vansina assigned as original meanings: “dependent”, “subject”, “domestic”, “clown” . “Before Mwami Mazimpaka (1696-1720), master at the court treated their servants”  Hutu  “regardless of their origins . “Thus, the entire population of the region Budaha (south-west) was called Hutu because it was part of the corporation in charge of supplying the court. This is where the current expression would refuse service to “Sindi umuhutu wawe “which can be translated literally as” I am not your servant, “but whose meaning has evolved to become the semantic equivalent from the French phrase “occupy your own business.” Referring to Schumacher, Vansina also reports that the term Hutu meant also foreigners, that is to say, “those who do not live in the kingdom and without distinction” .

    Understand the evolution of the meanings of ”  Hutu  “ suppose to contextualize the utterance of the word. The connotation of Hutu could mean rather the lower rank to whom it is addressed. It could be pejorative when the quality Hutu was given by the notable third lower and servile.

    Hutu would therefore not systematically identified farmers in the first period. This association would have appeared later, in the second half of the eighteenth century, under the reign of Mwami Rujugira (1744-1768) and is linked to the differentiation of functions in the military organization.The armies were composed of various differentiated bodies combatants, foragers, touts and producers. The term Tutsi was applied to any warrior fighter, that of Hutu members of their suite loaded to bear arms.

    This differentiation of roles is at the origin of the first distinction institutionalized categories Hutu and Tutsi. Warriors fighters being initially recruited from intore (pages) from the large Tutsi families, the approximation of the words “Tutsi” and “warrior” was promoted. The majority of non-combatants from being farmers, the term Hutu have gradually been applied by the elites to all farmers irrespective of their origins. By the same logic, the elites would come to call all Tutsi pastoralists, again regardless of their origins. This distinction would be circulated to all Rwandophone area and beyond in the growth momentum of the political and cultural influence of the dynasty nyiginya and multiplication armies in the territory.

    John of Nepomuk Nkurikiyimfura is assumed that the first stage of cleavage between Mututsi and Hutu would fall after the great achievements of the dynasty that is nyiginya to 1550, when the royal authority of this kingdom dota its field first administrative organization.Therefore, in areas conquered two administrative systems superposèrent that was in force in the areas which had hitherto been kingdomsautonomous one hand, and the system in force in nyiginya core of Rwanda and militias also interested Mwami who settled as “settlers” on newly annexed land in Rwanda RWA Gasabo. Is an essential to note that the designations Hutu and Tutsi were not-used on any area of the current Rwanda. Mgr Patient Kanyamachumbi, noted that the use of the categories”  Hutu  “,” Twa “,” Tutsi “ , spread geographically As the expansion of political domination nyiginya.

    “As small as the RWA uRwanda Gasabo was growing by annexing new principalities, conquered territory became Rwanda, Rwandan population conquered became globally but for reasons of political and administrative organization, including For the IRS, the ruling class of the new people was annexed included among the Tutsi, the common people joined the Hutu and Batwa were classified by their colleagues Batwa.People adopted the new culture and especially language Kinyarwanda. ‘

    Point of view contributory rich and the ruling class called Batutsi pay the annual tax cattle, the common people paid the tax for food, small animals and various local handicrafts. Batwa tax paid with the proceeds of the hunt, usually animal skins and ivory. As the tax is paid per family, shortly after the annexation of a new kingdom or principality of a new Rwanda, families Hutu , Tutsi and Twa were identified and well known. It was in the interest of the kingdom of Rwanda and Tutsi leaders in their possession that kept a portion of the tax due to the royal court. In the case of annexation, it became very quickly Hutu , Tutsi and Twa. To illustrate his thesis, Mgr Patient Kanyamachumbi gives the example of former Autonomous ibihugu Ndorwa, and the Bugoyi Kinyaga.

    “There are less than two hundred years, some prefectures current Byumba, Ruhengeri, Gisenyi and Cyangugu was not Rwanda. And among the inhabitants of these territories annexed recently in Rwanda, there are now a large number of people whose ancestors were neither Hutu nor Tutsi. Thus, in the Ndorwa whose citizens were Bakiga and social groups composed of Bashambo Bairu and those whose ancestors were annexed to Rwanda no longer called Bas ¬ hambo and Bayiru but Batutsi andBahutu . Similarly, in the Bugoyi and Kinya ¬ ga old Baluzi, or Bahunde Bashi became Tutsi and Hutu . More Bagoyi those who became Ban ¬ yarwanda and who emigrated to Congo (DRC) in the realms of Bahavu Kalehe or Bahunde Masisi are again Ba ¬ hunde. ‘

    In this regime contribtion very sharp like the old Rwanda, Mututsi depleted ¬ VAIT to identify among the Hutu and Hutu beneficiary of a herd of cows came into the class Tutsi. This categorization of people, Kanyamachumbi Patient noted, was also not an exception Interlake region.

    “In Burundi national society also included the former king and queen, Baganwa Tutsi, the Hutu and Batwa precolonial Buganda had Balangira, the Bataka, and the Bakungu Bakopi. In Bunyoro and Karagwe Nkore precolonial, the national community was in each of these states, composed of Babito b ‘engoma formerly Bacwezi, the Bahima and Bayiru, the former national community Ndorwa included Bashambo and Bayiru.Later in Central Africa, the Lunda kingdom had a population precolonial and distributed; addition Mwant Jav-who is the king and the queen mother, there were Answan the Ilol and Tulamb.

    In all these various communities, or Bacwezi Babito b ‘engoma the Balangira the Baganwa and Answan were and were still nobles of royal blood. The Bakungu of Buganda, Rwanda’s Tutsi and Ilol Lunda were senior officials of the kingdom specifically responsible for collecting taxes. It is not unlikely that the Bahima Bunyoro of Nkore, Karagwe and Tutsi in Burundi had the same function. The bulk of taxpayers consisted of Bakopi in Buganda, the Hutu in Rwanda and Tulamb in Lunda, Congo (DRC) and Angola. ‘

    Thus, with the politico-administrative system nyiginya each and every citizen of the kingdom of Rwanda was divided into three categories permeable social and solidarity, the founders of the former Rwanda have put there the fundamental principles of unity and national integration. The tax system was a political instrument that allowed the kingdom of Rwanda wishes to extend to ensuring integration and the friendliness of its residents.

    Servilien Sebasoni is that for all Rwandans, even the experts: “There have always been hesitation to say, (…) if Rwandans were Hutu or Tutsi by race, by wealth or social status. “ The complexity of the terms ”  Hutu “Twa”, “Tutsi” , is that their meanings are arranged according to a plurality of channels semantics, which must be distinguished even if they are interspersed throughout the story. One is related to the economic specialization and tax (polarization agricultural or pastoral), a second is political (importance of social status), a third is related to the award of a mythical origin transmitted on a patrilineal a fourth is related to ethical behavior type. Some examples will serve to illustrate this semantic plurality:

    Murinda, a Hutu from Bugoyi reigned Kadasa near Goma, he was surprised that Cyirima the nyiginya who lived across not trying to fight with him and was told that the king did not like his royal drum, its Isanga cows, cows Murinda Nyabarondo and daughter. If Murinda wanted to fight with him, it was enough to call him one of these four things. Murinda he claimed his cows with long horns Muringa. Cyirima consulted his son: “Should I send my cows to Hutu  ? “ and his son answered: “How can you call Hutu when he is king in his own country? ‘

    Power and its attributes are thus incompatible with the quality of Hutu or at least the rank of pair (from king to king) would not use this term. In the contract ubuhake, the name ”  Hutu  “ applies to any obligation whatever his parentage. The shebuja said “my Hutu  “ to each of its abagaragu. The term Hutu was therefore used in this context as a term for the position of one of the protagonists of the relationship.

    It is undeniable that around the word “Tutsi” were aggregated connotations related to reference values of the Rwandan elite. Whether you are in the registry economic, political, ethical or mythical “Tutsi”aggregates the highest values. Hierarchy based Gatwa between the myths,Gahutu and Gatutsi remain identical whatever social and cultural spheres.

    The common denominator, regardless of the registry (economic, ethical, political), the semantic network of the term ”  Hutu  “seems to be the meaning of subordination. Can we hypothesize that this hierarchy is a construction group politically and culturally dominant area of Rwanda?

    The Rwandan historian Emmanuel Ntezimana notes that: “references Abatutsi, Abahutu Abatwa and many appear at the end of the eighteenth century. They voluntarily appear everywhere in the lineages that are specific (…) predominant lineages “ . Cleavage Hutu and Tutsi would have been first a political construction staging locally at elite lineage or co-opted by the court nyiginya and its affiliated clans before spreading in society generally; l opposition Tutsi / Hutu opposition eventually cover impfura / rubanda. (Impfura: elite, distinguished, noble, ethical and economic sense; rubanda: the people, the common)

    Primitive social cleavage divided not ethnic but separated large families (constituting a class that could, with reservation, call nobility, simple subjects, they were farmers and shepherds, and regardless of their origins.

    Phenomena of transition from class Hutu Tutsi class ( ukwihutura ) or conversely, class Tutsi class Hutu (gucupira), so often emphasized, would have marked the passage of a non-ethnic group to another, but economic status, social and political another. These phenomena as designed, we understand that some ”  Hutu  “ taking off to marry a woman “Tutsi” were recognized with their families as “Tutsi” as a woman patrilineal organization adopted by the lineage of her marriage her husband whom she provides offspring.

    The matrimony was not the only way to access the “dignity” Tutsi. Wealth in herds could also transfer a family group Hutu to Tutsi group. ”  The Hutubecame owners of cattle and called ibyihuture “the leaving-the-condition-of-farmer” policies passed in the category Tutsi “According Nkundabagenzi,” the Hutu who, exceptionally, was appointed chief under former regime, was to hamitiser as soon as possible, which had the effect of erasing his lowly origin and was now regarded among his peers as a true Mututsi. ” The best known example is that of the Hutu Tutsi Bisangwa became after his appointment by the mwami Rwabugiri at the head of one of his armies Ingangurarugo: “The attackers avant-garde” .

    A distinction between the elite and the common people imfura rubanda, overlapped with the common distinction between wealth (ubukungu, ubikire, ubutunzi) and poor (and munyaruharo mucanshuro) and a fine social gradation between more or less good and bad families according to the occupations ease and reputation. These frameworks structuraient the class consciousness of the former Rwandan.

    Crystallization of antagonistic socio-economic Tutsi and Hutu would have operated in the nineteenth century by instituting discriminatory practices between farmers and herders.

    At the time when population growth changed the balance land where competition for land between farmers and strengthened, the court nyiginya introduced various reforms: it invented the pastoral booked ibikingi 1840. This practice encouraged farmers no longer depended on powerful local authorities and farmers deprived of land they till (and small farmers). A decade later, was created abanyamukenke function, “Chief grass” , whose task was to manage all remaining pastures in the province except those who were directly assigned to official herds and herders order who used them. This led to a territorial division of responsibilities formerly assumed by the umutware w’intara, “chief of the province” .

    It lost some of its prerogatives and its title. It was therefore called umunyabutaka, “Land Manager” . This duplication of territorial authorities had several consequences: it led to an increase in royalties, it diminished the powers of lineages, he divided the agro-pastoral communities as farmers and ranchers no longer depended on the same authority and should benefit more more differentiated. Finally, these reforms were followed by the creation of a new operating system: uburetwa that where it was practiced forced himself especially farmers.

    The umunyabutaka considering themselves as the sole master of the land, began to require each family of farmers royalties including a significant portion of the crops and an obligation to provide services two days a week. According to Schumacher all Tutsi herders did not escape uburetwa but the benefits they were owed ”noble” unlike those farmers Hutu who could be asked of a more servile work. This discrimination is combined with differentiation, ”  Hutu -Tutsi “ we have already mentioned, in the armies would have resulted in an awareness of difference unfair treatment, and from there, the awareness of a social divide that would divide the whole society into two social categories and hierarchies now the opposite of “Tutsi” and that of ”  Hutu  “ meaning the Hutu and Tutsi no longer have therefore designated a production function in economic and social status but a transmissible being patrilineal. This extension of the cleavage Hutu , Tutsi, has not been adopted across the Rwandan cultural area.

    “Pastors Bagogwe or Bahima mountains of North, under the Second Republic, will be virtually exterminated because they are considered” Tutsi “refused to be assimilated to central Tutsi of Rwanda. Conversely, they considered an insult to be called Bahima and farmers of the North recognized as “Bakiga” and not as ”  Hutu  “. The Bakiga North, the ”  Hutu “Eastern North East and West interchangeably called” Tutsi “anyone came Centre regardless of his lineage, whether aristocrats but both ” Hutu  “and” Twa “that made after them accompanied them, then they called Bahima Bagogwe or their neighbors who will later be assimilated to” Tutsi “ .

    The genealogy of cleavage Hutu / Tutsi presented here is supported by very detailed field surveys Catharine Newbury Kinyaga conducted in a historic province in south-western Rwanda, remained until the reign of Rwabugiri the nineteenth century, periphery of the centralizing influence of bami nyiginya. The observation of social relations and the analysis of genealogical narratives she collected served as material for his major work, The cohesion of oppression, in which it shows the consolidation of central power, the variability of relations of domination and the cyclical dimension of ethnicity.

    In Kinyaga traditions show that the region inhabited rather late immigrants of various origins were in the mid-nineteenth century, a few links with the central government without these bonds do not lead.Immigrants from the center of the shooting from a certain prestige, but local people Kinyaga preserved their autonomy. The desire to expand the central government under Kigeri Rwabugiri have made these options are incompatible. It is at this time that ”  Hutu  “ have taken connotations, if not servility, at least subordination and without any crystallize a collective identity. The disjunction between origin and lineage allocation of “ethnicity” is in the fact that “it was at this time that people are Kinyaga the arrival of” Tutsi “, even though the history of their lineages attests presence much earlier. ‘

    Two options are possible to interpret this phenomenon:

    • The first is to consider that the informants who reported the family chronicles have erred in their accounts of the arrival of Tutsi Kinyaga. The error informant is the only solution in the framework of a theory which considers ”  Hutu  “ and “Tutsi” as ethnic identities and immutable.

    • The second is to consider that the informants state the truth of the social perception of what were ”  Hutu  “ and “Tutsi” ie, relational identities relating to the status and functions which have fluctuated over time and are in region Kinyaga quite recent. Thus, “the Tutsi identity” or “identityHutu  “ were not simply a matter of origin even if tends to make people believe the general organization of patrilineal lineage society in which social functions are transmitted from generation to generation. The reader will have sensed, we are inclined to opt for the second hypothesis.

    The arrival of representatives of the central government identified as Tutsi resulted in transforming identifiable categories: “The cultural identity based on a paradigm circulatory reciprocity gives way to the center and reports the position in a network unequal exchange. “ During the colonization enhanced the significance of the central government will be reviled, mainly because of the increased burden on the common people.After the Second World War, the first political opposition will be structured based on criteria of social class and not ethnicity. Thus the“Tutsi” downgraded as ”  Hutu  “ adopt similar positions. It was only in the late fifties, under the influence of radicalization ethnocentric partyParmehutu , a cleavage appear between “poor Tutsi” and ”  Hutu  “ and that the positions of each other is crystallize on an ethnic basis.

    To conclude, it is possible to say that Rwanda, cleavage Hutu / Tutsi existed before the colonial period. But in its form of social antagonism, the premise of this cleavage date of the last third of the nineteenth century. It would be wrong to make a purely Western creation. That brings the colonizer’s own reading of the racial and ethnic divide Hutu / Tutsi hitherto absent and interpretation and tradition mirroring social relations now grown in context of colonial exploitation. Other “inputs” of the German and Belgian supervision will be the exacerbation of social relations that are exploited to establish colonial rule, confirmation of the most humiliating discrimination and the creation of new and finally the final reification categories Hutu , Tutsi Twa and by placing them on all identity documents from the thirties. Many authors report that the inclusion of the word Tutsi or Hutu on official documents was decided by the colonial administration based on the number of cows owned by family.

    Possession of ten cows would have resulted in the assimilation group Tutsi. But no author seems to be able to reference any document formalizing the decision, or even to the exact date of implementation.According Hakiza Rukatsi, raising livestock had been used by the Belgian government in 1938 as a criterion to distinguish Hutu of Mututsi when organized immigration to Masisi, Zaire.

    This is the will of the Belgian supervisory authority at this time to reduce the number of immigrants identified as Tutsi farmer would have led to control migration flows as a criterion to stop the ethnic identification number of cows owned. For the colonial administration, a Munyarwanda who had less than ten cows was supposed to be Hutu and admitted to immigration.

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27282

    In 1830 Yuhi III died after 33 years of absolute rule. The conquest of Africa by Europe has therefore started from either side of the continent.Mutara Rwugera II succeeded him. Then in 1853 (or 1867?) Is Kigeri IV Rwabugiri which in turn is enthroned. His reign will be particularly violent once he reaches adulthood. We argue the royal favors (Ega clan who managed to marry one of his daughters to the King and Gereka) that initiates a policy of expanding his kingdom despite the civil war in the country between the two main clans. In 1869, the Queen Mother Murorunkwere beats Gereka army and killing his followers murdered the son of his rival before claiming itself to be murdered in turn in 1876 under mysterious circumstances. Curiously, the new ruler will die in mysterious circumstances while Germany has entered into force in his kingdom and forced the king to accept a protectorate. Not without meddle dynastic royal family. Anyway, Death (1895) Kigeri IV benefits the new protector. Without consulting the Royal Council, the Germans (who settled permanently in the country in 1898 with the agreement of Mwami) forcibly called to the throne, Mibambwe IV before promoting the election of his son Yuhi IV Musinga in 1896. A rebellion broke out in May 1911 against Musinga in and will put down a year later due to artillery prusisenne. sovereign Three in one year then the Belgian occupation (1916) will awaken the Tutsi nationalism. If the royal family finally agreed to submit to the Prussians in 1905, it does not matter as long as the Belgians do rain and weather around the Great Lakes (at the end of 1914, the Germans were also Kivu, Lake Tanganyika and North West now Zambia).Some aristocrats challenged the legitimacy of the sovereign and his mother against him Kanjogera Princess, wife of King Mutara II. It will eventually Assistant to the new sovereign. Musinga not admit it and discovers that it tries to restore his father without his knowledge. It even tries to assassinate him. It will react with all the violence of an African ruler. His uncle, his mother, his two wives and his brothers will compromise all executed. Belgium, which has not intervened and administers Rwanda since the defeat of the Germans in 1918 during the First World War have enjoyed this little how to resolve dynastic problems of the country (in 1907, Rwanda was separated administratively from Burundi, Kigali is funded by the German Richard Kandt). And to compel the sovereign to submit the Belgians are neither more nor less than point their guns at his house. Musinga cordially hates these Europeans will be forced to make a bad grace. Fearing anarchy settled in the kingdom, the Belgians decided nevertheless to maintain Musinga his prerogatives, he built a palace and quite exceptional decorate. Only the divine right of life and death over his people is withdrawn.

    C) The Belgian colonization

    On 24 October 1922, the Belgians decided to unite under a single administration Rwanda and Urundi and agree to support the two monarchies Tutsis at the expense of Hutus. Mibambwe IV who tried to oppose his removal had rebelled but besieged, he ended up committing suicide with her three other son (May 1922). Belgian Prime Resident (since 1919) Pierre Ryckmans will run 6 of the 22 captured rebels). Musinga, who are now just remove his property rights inalienable and sovereign arbiter, finally takes the torch of rebellion against his new protectors. Rejecting Catholicism, advocating polygamy, sovereign Tutsi incurred the wrath of the Church Belge. Rebellions resumed in the colony, far from being a sinecure for the occupant. In 1926, during a year, a messianic movement led by a Hutu, sorcerer of his condition, threatening the stability of Rwanda and an attempt to seize power by a Hutu named Ndungutse general uprising turns between March and April 1928. It pretends to be a half-brother of Musinga and raises people to seize the throne. The Belgians will be hard to watch this nationalist rebellion. Musinga still refuses to convert. His children are baptized 5 January 1930 are driven by the Mwami of the Court. Annoyed, the Belgians finally deposits November 12, 1931. Monsignor Classe which regulates the ecclesiastical life of the colony and the Vice-Governor (since 20 October 1924, the kingdom was included in Urundi neighbor and a few months later annexed to the Belgian Congo) decided to end the monarchy and replacing it with internal administration. The project was soon abandoned. In early 1900, the first missionaries wrote: “We do not listen much these brave Hutu who want above all to throw off the yoke of Tutsi and that is what they are palpable and they want to use us to get there ., but slowly. ” It then meets acquired Belgian parliament and is the son of Musinga Charles Rudahigwa Mutara III (born 1912) as the new sovereign. From a legal point of view, it is a real coup that the Belgians are to operate. Especially now that the word is mandatory on ethnic identity cards. Officially recognize future taxpayers Crown. Mutara III will settle not really constitute this situation and tries to escape this tutelage of the Belgian Catholic Church.The latter has become more and more important in the lives of Rwandans as Hutu Tutsi converted (begun in 1911, the population show little eager to convert). Moreover Mwami Mutara is the first to come to power a Catholic. On the day of his coronation, he thank “Christ the King who gave Rwanda the divine light of the Belgian colonial administration ..”. But religion also provides illuminated in his faith. protectorate in the first half of the twentieth century was dominated by two ethnic majority and ethnic minority Twa pygmies or more commonly called. Tutsi (Royal dominant ethnic group) are in the minority while the Hutus more specialized in agriculture and animal husbandry are the majority. Long before settlers accentuate this difference, the Hutus were considered second-class African Tutsi monarchy. While sharing the same language, they were not allowed to marry among members of ethnic rivals. But we had forgotten or pretended to ignore that it was those Hutus who had baptized this part of the Great Lakes, Rwanda (which aims to expand) The Germans filled the whole Prussian imperial hubris had disregards these differences. For them, it y’avait that colonized peoples and one Empire, one of the German Reich. The Belgians had a radically different design racial. There must have been a je ne sais quoi of Tutsis in Semitic. So the equation was simple. These very large African nature should be affiliated to any European branch and smaller Hutus, ethnic submitted. Quite naturally, the settlers and the Belgian church, supported the Tutsi monarchy. The true Church authoritarian rule in the colony decided that ethnicity must be mentioned in the booklet in her identity as the rights were paired with ethnicity. Monsignor Classe, a prominent representative of the Belgian ecclesiastical authority as we know, decreed that “only the Tutsi to its superior quality and sense of command was clearly indicated to rule unchallenged Rwanda.” Is also determined by their ethnic birth that would be the future of such and such a Hutu or Tutsi. The ruling class to succeed their fathers while the Hutus should only enjoy crafts crafts. Although the seminar was prohibited Hutus who had to settle for only catechumenate. This ethnic difference both politically and economically the existed long before European arrival. Without accepting the ethnic components of Rwanda were satisfied with the order established by the principle of survival of the fittest. Colonization invented therefore no segregation unnamed but strongly accentuated reading instituted racial discrimination in the avowed aim of the operation of the Rwandan soil. The Second World War which broke out in 1939, was one for the kingdom source of conflict more. Requisition of forces of the nation did not like the sovereign Mutara III. The colony is shaken.Considered dangerous come the old Mwami is near June 26, 1940 in Albertville. Germans landed in Kigali were received pat the former sovereign. Doubt that the Nazi regime promised to Musinga regain his crown if he manages to lift his people against the Belgians. Death Yuhi V Musinga January 13, 1944, the end of the conflict (1945), emancipation movements that were created by either side of the black continent aroused the attention of the sovereign and in particular, the sweet siren that he trumpeted the Soviet Union. The Belgian missionaries rightly feared that the king tries to get rid of settlers officially calling the Communists for help. In 1955, Jean Paul Harroy was appointed Governor of the Belgian colonies in Africa. It succeeds the governor convinced Liberal and adapts quickly Claeys advice of Bishop Perraudin, successor of Bishop class. At the dawn of the year 1959, the situation of the ethnic and political province of Rwanda and breaks. 84% are controlled by Hutu 14% Tutsi. All 43 tribal leaders are elected Tutsis and only 10 of the 559 leaders are under Hutus. To avoid ethnic conflicts, the Governor imposes ethnic equity within the Congolese Force Publique and requires all to speak Lingala. However, he refuses that one weapon Tutsis because he sees them as rebellious and perpetual fear that they are using the Belgian arms against the Hutus against the settlers see themselves. Finally, seven officers Belgians chapeauteront 3 companies of 250 African soldiers. On 30 March 1958, the King had appointed a commission composed half of Hutus and Tutsis to study the ethnic problem. The committee will most astonishing conclusion. It simply denied the problem. However, March 24, 1957, 9 intellectuals from all the seminar (Maximilian Niyonzima, Kayibanda Claver Ndahayo, Isidore Nzeyimana, Calliope Mulindaha, Godfrey Sentama, Munyambonera Sylvestre, Joseph and Joseph Habyarimana Sibomana) had issued a manifesto said Hutus. The manifesto is symptomatic of racial segregation that prevailed in the country. Considering themselves as victims of power Tutsi, Hutu claim their emancipation, freedom of expression and equality in administrative positions

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27284

    Glossing over the usual genocide bs in Kigali reminded me of impeccable evidence I heard from various sources about Obote’s so called massacres of Bagandas in the Luwero triangle.


    Yes,at least 250,000 Baganda were killed. However it appears the perpetrators weren’t the hated Northerners. The atrocities were actually done by the then NRA according to many Tutsis who’ve fallen out with the Kagame-M7 axis.
    At first glance its bullshit but when you look deeper,hmmmm…. The killings happened in areas where the then Uganda Army had been driven out,Obote said as much in an interview.If his forces were really killing Baganda en masse wouldn’t they have tried to hide the bodies instead of them displaying them openly?
    Rwandese insiders similarly state an identical tactic was used in the 90s all over Rwanda and most of the dead were actually Hutu;and the total 94 KIA was max 500k. 2 US researchers Stam & Davenport say the same.
    Defectors have also stated the fav trick of NRA fighters was the false flag:horribly torture families to death wearing Obote army uniforms and ‘rescue’ the kids who then become fearless kadogos. Apparently this is an open secret.
    IMO,the road to the Kigali killings began in Luwero:Spartan,aggressor one,flying crane,what’s the truth??

    MWAURA wrote:Glossing over the usual genocide bs in Kigali reminded me of impeccable evidence I heard from various sources about Obote’s so called massacres of Bagandas in the Luwero triangle.
    Yes,at least 250,000 Baganda were killed. However it appears the perpetrators weren’t the hated Northerners. The atrocities were actually done by the then NRA according to many Tutsis who’ve fallen out with the Kagame-M7 axis.
    At first glance its bullshit but when you look deeper,hmmmm…. The killings happened in areas where the then Uganda Army had been driven out,Obote said as much in an interview.If his forces were really killing Baganda en masse wouldn’t they have tried to hide the bodies instead of them displaying them openly?
    Rwandese insiders similarly state an identical tactic was used in the 90s all over Rwanda and most of the dead were actually Hutu;and the total 94 KIA was max 500k. 2 US researchers Stam & Davenport say the same.
    Defectors have also stated the fav trick of NRA fighters was the false flag:horribly torture families to death wearing Obote army uniforms and ‘rescue’ the kids who then become fearless kadogos. Apparently this is an open secret.
    IMO,the road to the Kigali killings began in Luwero:Spartan,aggressor one,flying crane,what’s the truth??

    Bro, what’s the motive behind this kind of supposition, its historical untruths aside? The proof of the pudding is the eating, just take this view to Luwero, if you’re lucky to survive a lynching, maybe there’s some truth in it. It doesn’t even pass the smell test bse;

    1. Once a butcher, always a butcher. Where has the UPDF gone on to kill? Somalia, South Sudan, C.A.R? Maybe the UPDF is the one that killed people in Kenya during the 2007 P.E.V! Or did we become saved all of sudden? Make your pick
    2. Mention names. These were people who were killed, not animals. Real genocide victims are always documented, why not those killed by NRA? Otherwise this remains a wild accusation
    3. At the height of its strength, NRA had 200,000 in its ranks. Is it possible that all of these guys are quiet  about those atrocities when many of them are now private citizens or even in opposition politics

    You’re reading from too many sites/sources that have an agenda against Tutsis, and this agenda always seeks to tie NRA to RPF/A, and by extension the Rwandan genocide (where the question of who perpetrated what has never been solved).

    Former UN ambassador for children in conflict zones Olara Otunu (now UPC party president) made a career out of these kinds of smears. He posited that the war in the north was a ploy by the government to finish off the people of the north. Guess who is winning the north politically now. Even the illiterate peasants know a blatant lie when they hear one.

    Rebellion is not a walk in the park. When you pick up guns to fight, people get killed, sometimes the innocent, regrettably. I will not speak for RPF (although it’s your game plan to tie NRA and RPF at the hip). People died in Uganda during the wars, including many innocent people in Luwero and other areas, but there simply was no systematic plan to kill innocents.

    Those making up these rumours (who pretend to have seen the atrocities) should present themselves for prosecution for taking part in killing civilians or witnessing and doing nothing

    You are wading into the dark by giving too much time to fallacious accusations by fringe elements of Uganda’s political opposition as well as enemies. Ugandans know who killed whom and we don’t need academic types from the West or anyone for that matter to tell us what to believe. That’s why they continue to vote in a way that confounds people who don’t like the Old Man.

    With the benefit of hindsight now, i don’t blame the Obote government that much. State security business can be tough and sometimes rogue elements in the state can be forced to sanction illegal deaths as the deaths of Sheikhs Aboud Rogo and Ibrahim Rogo in Mombasa can attest.

    Spartan wrote:MWAURA wrote:Glossing over the usual genocide bs in Kigali reminded me of impeccable evidence I heard from various sources about Obote’s so called massacres of Bagandas in the Luwero triangle.
    Yes,at least 250,000 Baganda were killed. However it appears the perpetrators weren’t the hated Northerners. The atrocities were actually done by the then NRA according to many Tutsis who’ve fallen out with the Kagame-M7 axis.
    At first glance its bullshit but when you look deeper,hmmmm…. The killings happened in areas where the then Uganda Army had been driven out,Obote said as much in an interview.If his forces were really killing Baganda en masse wouldn’t they have tried to hide the bodies instead of them displaying them openly?
    Rwandese insiders similarly state an identical tactic was used in the 90s all over Rwanda and most of the dead were actually Hutu;and the total 94 KIA was max 500k. 2 US researchers Stam & Davenport say the same.
    Defectors have also stated the fav trick of NRA fighters was the false flag:horribly torture families to death wearing Obote army uniforms and ‘rescue’ the kids who then become fearless kadogos. Apparently this is an open secret.
    IMO,the road to the Kigali killings began in Luwero:Spartan,aggressor one,flying crane,what’s the truth??

    Bro, what’s the motive behind this kind of supposition, its historical untruths aside? The proof of the pudding is the eating, just take this view to Luwero, if you’re lucky to survive a lynching, maybe there’s some truth in it. It doesn’t even pass the smell test bse;

    1. Once a butcher, always a butcher. Where has the UPDF gone on to kill? Somalia, South Sudan, C.A.R? Maybe the UPDF is the one that killed people in Kenya during the 2007 P.E.V! Or did we become saved all of sudden? Make your pick
    2. Mention names. These were people who were killed, not animals. Real genocide victims are always documented, why not those killed by NRA? Otherwise this remains a wild accusation
    3. At the height of its strength, NRA had 200,000 in its ranks. Is it possible that all of these guys are quiet  about those atrocities when many of them are now private citizens or even in opposition politics

    You’re reading from too many sites/sources that have an agenda against Tutsis, and this agenda always seeks to tie NRA to RPF/A, and by extension the Rwandan genocide (where the question of who perpetrated what has never been solved).

    Former UN ambassador for children in conflict zones Olara Otunu (now UPC party president) made a career out of these kinds of smears. He posited that the war in the north was a ploy by the government to finish off the people of the north. Guess who is winning the north politically now. Even the illiterate peasants know a blatant lie when they hear one.

    Rebellion is not a walk in the park. When you pick up guns to fight, people get killed, sometimes the innocent, regrettably. I will not speak for RPF (although it’s your game plan to tie NRA and RPF at the hip). People died in Uganda during the wars, including many innocent people in Luwero and other areas, but there simply was no systematic plan to kill innocents.

    Those making up these rumours (who pretend to have seen the atrocities) should present themselves for prosecution for taking part in killing civilians or witnessing and doing nothing

    You are wading into the dark by giving too much time to fallacious accusations by fringe elements of Uganda’s political opposition as well as enemies. Ugandans know who killed whom and we don’t need academic types from the West or anyone for that matter to tell us what to believe. That’s why they continue to vote in a way that confounds people who don’t like the Old Man.

    With the benefit of hindsight now, i don’t blame the Obote government that much. State security business can be tough and sometimes rogue elements in the state can be forced to sanction illegal deaths as the deaths of Sheikhs Aboud Rogo and Ibrahim Rogo in Mombasa can attest.

    Actually when I first heard the story in 2000 from 2 Baganda buddies I didn’t pay attention. One from Luweero,a place called Bulemezi. He was shot in Nairobi a year later. When looking at the RPF record of mass murder beginning with their 1990 invasion where they even killed Tutsis throughout their ‘liberated’ areas in the North it  makes sense.
    They’d thoroughly infiltrated the FAR and the Interahamwe and had the Media on their side from the get go.
    One question will give us proper perspective:is it true that Obote’s intel service the GSU and Amin’s SRB had a number of high level Tutsis?
    MWAURA wrote:Actually when I first heard the story in 2000 from 2 Baganda buddies I didn’t pay attention. One from Luweero,a place called Bulemezi. He was shot in Nairobi a year later. When looking at the RPF record of mass murder beginning with their 1990 invasion where they even killed Tutsis throughout their ‘liberated’ areas in the North it  makes sense.
    They’d thoroughly infiltrated the FAR and the Interahamwe and had the Media on their side from the get go.
    One question will give us proper perspective:is it true that Obote’s intel service the GSU and Amin’s SRB had a number of high level Tutsis?

    Man, dignifying these unfounded accusations didn’t mean we could go on and on about them. Let me tell you this: these accusations are derisive, derogatory and demeaning. Please stop!

    A few parting shots however;
    1. Man gets shot in Nairobi, so what? Nairobi isn’t exactly Abu Dhabi or Zurich. People get shot there all the time, with the police taking a fare share of the victims.
    2. Is this Tutsi obssession or what? And how is what the do/did related to us. Direct your fire more pointedly, bro. Are you shooting at us or at the Tutsi?
    3. Amin’s SRB had some Tutsis but Obote had virtually none. He despised them for being used by Amin, remember? Actually, he ordered a purge in 1982 or thereabouts and they sought refuge with the rebels. He was actually responsible for the disproportionate number of Tutsis in NRA.

    The Obote you are quoting is a very divisive figure in Uganda even in death, it isn’t as if he was a saint. He was a politician per excellence, nothing more. He is responsible for most of our troubles, from promoting the illiterate Amin because he thought he could control him, introducing tribalism in the armed forces which twice led to his ouster and persecuting Rwandese refugees thereby driving them into rebellion with the NRA after which they attacked their motherland.

    So who is the originator of the current state of affairs in Uganda and the greater great lakes region? No prizes for that.

    I hope you have no more questions bro.

    Spartan wrote:MWAURA wrote:Actually when I first heard the story in 2000 from 2 Baganda buddies I didn’t pay attention. One from Luweero,a place called Bulemezi. He was shot in Nairobi a year later. When looking at the RPF record of mass murder beginning with their 1990 invasion where they even killed Tutsis throughout their ‘liberated’ areas in the North it  makes sense.
    They’d thoroughly infiltrated the FAR and the Interahamwe and had the Media on their side from the get go.
    One question will give us proper perspective:is it true that Obote’s intel service the GSU and Amin’s SRB had a number of high level Tutsis?

    Man, dignifying these unfounded accusations didn’t mean we could go on and on about them. Let me tell you this: these accusations are derisive, derogatory and demeaning. Please stop!

    A few parting shots however;
    1. Man gets shot in Nairobi, so what? Nairobi isn’t exactly Abu Dhabi or Zurich. People get shot there all the time, with the police taking a fare share of the victims.
    2. Is this Tutsi obssession or what? And how is what the do/did related to us. Direct your fire more pointedly, bro. Are you shooting at us or at the Tutsi?
    3. Amin’s SRB had some Tutsis but Obote had virtually none. He despised them for being used by Amin, remember? Actually, he ordered a purge in 1982 or thereabouts and they sought refuge with the rebels. He was actually responsible for the disproportionate number of Tutsis in NRA.

    The Obote you are quoting is a very divisive figure in Uganda even in death, it isn’t as if he was a saint. He was a politician per excellence, nothing more. He is responsible for most of our troubles, from promoting the illiterate Amin because he thought he could control him, introducing tribalism in the armed forces which twice led to his ouster and persecuting Rwandese refugees thereby driving them into rebellion with the NRA after which they attacked their motherland.

    So who is the originator of the current state of affairs in Uganda and the greater great lakes region? No prizes for that.

    I hope you have no more questions bro.

    Obote 1’s intel agency,the GSU had a number of Tutsis,including Museveni himself. (You do know M7’s mama,Esteeri Kokundeeka, was a Tutsi royal?)Amin’s SRB as you admit had a number also who were rebel agents. This extremely important detail confirms there was a longstanding Tutsi plan to control and dominate the entire Great lakes region including even Kenya. Most Kenyans don’t understand what the whole NRA/Moi hullabaloo in the 80s was all about,but now its obvious.
    Fyi,the RPF in the late 90s were so secure in their AngloJewish protection and confident in their destablisation activities and martial ability they openly declared ,”Moi would leave not necessarily by election.”
    MWAURA wrote:Obote 1’s intel agency,the GSU had a number of Tutsis,including Museveni himself. (You do know M7’s mama,Esteeri Kokundeeka, was a Tutsi royal?)Amin’s SRB as you admit had a number also who were rebel agents. This extremely important detail confirms there was a longstanding Tutsi plan to control and dominate the entire Great lakes region including even Kenya. Most Kenyans don’t understand what the whole NRA/Moi hullabaloo in the 80s was all about,but now its obvious.
    Fyi,the RPF in the late 90s were so secure in their AngloJewish protection and confident in their destablisation activities and martial ability they openly declared ,”Moi would leave not necessarily by election.”

    Bro, I’ll have to leave you to knock yourself out on this one, but not before undoing some innacuracies in your wildly imagined conspiracy.

    1. The Ole Man’s mother was a Munyankore (Kokundeka means ‘If you leave me’, I don’t know the Tutsi equivalent). Even if she was Tutsi, it wouldn’t make him Tutsi. All Ugandan tribes are patriarchal i.e children follow the father’s tribe. Maybe you are from the matriarchal Kikuyu, but never mind.

    2. It’s not true there were Tutsis in Obote’s intel services, especially not Obote I when Mzee served there. Most Tutsi, incuding Kagame as a 3-yr old, came in 1959 when there was an insurrection against the Tutsi-ruled kingdom of King Mutara III in Rwanda, and went straight to refugee camps, with Kagame and Rwigyema ending up in Nshungerezi Refugee camp in Tooro district in Western Uganda. They were still considered refugees in Obote I btn 1966 – 71. They also considered themselves refugees (that’s why they fought to go back home, remember). It’s Amin who employed their services, along with other non-Ugandan tribes like the Anyanya and Kakwa of Sudan

    To be honest with you, I have heard of this so-called Tutsi scheme, and I will tell you this. It stems from a deep inferiority complex its purveyors have against the Tutsi, much like the hatred of Jews goes hand in hand with feelings of inadequacy their haters have when they compare themselves to the Jews. Otherwise how do you explain a whole region ganging up on a small tribe whose main crime is to roam with their cattle?

    On that quote from the RPF, any names and places. It’s easy (and cheap) for one to put words in quotation marks and attribute them to any other person without proper references
    spartan wrote:1. The Ole Man’s mother was a Munyankore (Kokundeka means ‘If you leave me’, I don’t know the Tutsi equivalent). Even if she was Tutsi, it wouldn’t make him Tutsi. All Ugandan tribes are patriarchal i.e children follow the father’s tribe. Maybe you are from the matriarchal Kikuyu, but never mind.

    No.She was a Royal Tutsi;that’s certain. Its a fact she crossed the border in 1945 as a single mother when M7 was a 2 or 3 year old toddler.
    spartan wrote:2. It’s not true there were Tutsis in Obote’s intel services, especially not Obote I when Mzee served there. Most Tutsi, incuding Kagame as a 3-yr old, came in 1959 when there was an insurrection against the Tutsi-ruled kingdom of King Mutara III in Rwanda, and went straight to refugee camps, with Kagame and Rwigyema ending up in Nshungerezi Refugee camp in Tooro district in Western Uganda. They were still considered refugees in Obote I btn 1966 – 71. They also considered themselves refugees (that’s why they fought to go back home, remember). It’s Amin who employed their services, along with other non-Ugandan tribes like the Anyanya and Kakwa of Sudan

    Yes,Obote’s intel was under overall control of his cousin but there was at least 2 or 3 senior operational Tutsis,one being Micombero,allegedly from Kigezi.
    spartan wrote:To be honest with you, I have heard of this so-called Tutsi scheme, and I will tell you this. It stems from a deep inferiority complex its purveyors have against the Tutsi, much like the hatred of Jews goes hand in hand with feelings of inadequacy their haters have when they compare themselves to the Jews. Otherwise how do you explain a whole region ganging up on a small tribe whose main crime is to roam with their cattle?

    I thought so too at first but the weight of the evidence proves there is a Tutsi plan to control the Great Lakes.
    spartan wrote:On that quote from the RPF, any names and places. It’s easy (and cheap) for one to put words in quotation marks and attribute them to any other person without proper references

    That quote is from the first mainstream refutation of the ‘official truth’ about the Rwanda 94 genocide. The book is a must read for all literate Africans. It undid all the bullshit by the likes of Prunier and Gourevitch and all the other RPF groupies.
    Genocide and covert operations in Africa, 1993-1999,Wayne Madsen.

    Btw,he’s an ex US naval intel guy-he knows his shit!

    Coming back to Luweero

    Like I said I first heard the atrocities were done by M7’s boys according to some Baganda buddies in the early 90s. Astonishingly his biggest supporters have publicly confirmed the same!!

    “At the burial of [UPC stalwart] Adonia Tiberondwa recently [on December 28, 2004], Maj. Gen. Kahinda Otafiire, for example, revealed that the National Resistance Army rebels used to wear UPC colours and then go into villages in Luwero and kill people in order to make the people think these were actions of the UPC government. Otafiire was boasting of the “tricks” NRA employed to win support in Luwero, but was also revealing the sinister side of Museveni and his insurgents… Each time there was a reported case of mistreatment of civilians by the army, we arrested those responsible and punished them severely.
    “The truth is that most of the soldiers in the army who were committing atrocities were Museveni’s people. And whenever we zeroed in on them, they would run to join him in the bush in Luwero. Take the example of [Colonel] Pecos Kutesa. He had an interview with William Pike on Capital Radio in Kampala in [January] 1995 in a programme called Desert Island Discs. He told Pike that he was in UNLA but as an NRA infiltrator whose mission was to undermine the credibility of the army from within.
    “Pecos Kutesa’s testimony is instructive of how Museveni personally orchestrated the killings of innocent people and the harassment of civilians not just in Luwero but other parts of Uganda as well during the 1980s. His testimony is also important because it fits very well with what Otafiire and Lt. Gen. Elly Tumwine have confessed. Let us listen to Pecos Kutesa, whose interview on Capital Radio I have kept as my evidence. He told Pike that he used to be at a roadblock in Konge. As a lieutenant, he was the man in charge of that roadblock. According to Pecos Kutesa’s own testimony on Capital Radio, Konge roadblock was the most notorious in harassing civilians, robbing them of their money and killing some. Kutesa says reports reached army headquarters of his harassment of the civilians and Oyite Ojok summoned him to Kampala for disciplinary action. He ran to the bush.” (Daily Monitor, April 15, 2005).

    http://hungryoftruth.blogspot.com/2009/10/truth-about-death-of-maj-gen-fred.html

    This same trick,the false flag,the committing of atrocities on civilians while wearing uniforms of the enemy is a hallmark of the Tutsi strategy in the Great Lakes. Yes,Tutsis were killed by Hutus,especially after the plane shootdown but the RPF  fooled the whole world. You do know or should know,they’d infiltrated the FAR,Interahamwe and all the Hutu parties. This tactic is used by all the Congolese rebel movements which are actually proxies of Kigali and Kampala.

     

    MWAURA wrote:spartan wrote:1. The Ole Man’s mother was a Munyankore (Kokundeka means ‘If you leave me’, I don’t know the Tutsi equivalent). Even if she was Tutsi, it wouldn’t make him Tutsi. All Ugandan tribes are patriarchal i.e children follow the father’s tribe. Maybe you are from the matriarchal Kikuyu, but never mind.

    No.She was a Royal Tutsi;that’s certain. Its a fact she crossed the border in 1945 as a single mother when M7 was a 2 or 3 year old toddler.
    spartan wrote:2. It’s not true there were Tutsis in Obote’s intel services, especially not Obote I when Mzee served there. Most Tutsi, incuding Kagame as a 3-yr old, came in 1959 when there was an insurrection against the Tutsi-ruled kingdom of King Mutara III in Rwanda, and went straight to refugee camps, with Kagame and Rwigyema ending up in Nshungerezi Refugee camp in Tooro district in Western Uganda. They were still considered refugees in Obote I btn 1966 – 71. They also considered themselves refugees (that’s why they fought to go back home, remember). It’s Amin who employed their services, along with other non-Ugandan tribes like the Anyanya and Kakwa of Sudan

    Yes,Obote’s intel was under overall control of his cousin but there was at least 2 or 3 senior operational Tutsis,one being Micombero,allegedly from Kigezi.
    spartan wrote:To be honest with you, I have heard of this so-called Tutsi scheme, and I will tell you this. It stems from a deep inferiority complex its purveyors have against the Tutsi, much like the hatred of Jews goes hand in hand with feelings of inadequacy their haters have when they compare themselves to the Jews. Otherwise how do you explain a whole region ganging up on a small tribe whose main crime is to roam with their cattle?

    I thought so too at first but the weight of the evidence proves there is a Tutsi plan to control the Great Lakes.
    spartan wrote:On that quote from the RPF, any names and places. It’s easy (and cheap) for one to put words in quotation marks and attribute them to any other person without proper references

    That quote is from the first mainstream refutation of the ‘official truth’ about the Rwanda 94 genocide. The book is a must read for all literate Africans. It undid all the bullshit by the likes of Prunier and Gourevitch and all the other RPF groupies.
    Genocide and covert operations in Africa, 1993-1999,Wayne Madsen.

    Btw,he’s an ex US naval intel guy-he knows his shit!

    Coming back to Luweero

    Like I said I first heard the atrocities were done by M7’s boys according to some Baganda buddies in the early 90s. Astonishingly his biggest supporters have publicly confirmed the same!!

    “At the burial of [UPC stalwart] Adonia Tiberondwa recently [on December 28, 2004], Maj. Gen. Kahinda Otafiire, for example, revealed that the National Resistance Army rebels used to wear UPC colours and then go into villages in Luwero and kill people in order to make the people think these were actions of the UPC government. Otafiire was boasting of the “tricks” NRA employed to win support in Luwero, but was also revealing the sinister side of Museveni and his insurgents… Each time there was a reported case of mistreatment of civilians by the army, we arrested those responsible and punished them severely.
    “The truth is that most of the soldiers in the army who were committing atrocities were Museveni’s people. And whenever we zeroed in on them, they would run to join him in the bush in Luwero. Take the example of [Colonel] Pecos Kutesa. He had an interview with William Pike on Capital Radio in Kampala in [January] 1995 in a programme called Desert Island Discs. He told Pike that he was in UNLA but as an NRA infiltrator whose mission was to undermine the credibility of the army from within.
    “Pecos Kutesa’s testimony is instructive of how Museveni personally orchestrated the killings of innocent people and the harassment of civilians not just in Luwero but other parts of Uganda as well during the 1980s. His testimony is also important because it fits very well with what Otafiire and Lt. Gen. Elly Tumwine have confessed. Let us listen to Pecos Kutesa, whose interview on Capital Radio I have kept as my evidence. He told Pike that he used to be at a roadblock in Konge. As a lieutenant, he was the man in charge of that roadblock. According to Pecos Kutesa’s own testimony on Capital Radio, Konge roadblock was the most notorious in harassing civilians, robbing them of their money and killing some. Kutesa says reports reached army headquarters of his harassment of the civilians and Oyite Ojok summoned him to Kampala for disciplinary action. He ran to the bush.” (Daily Monitor, April 15, 2005).

    This same trick,the false flag,the committing of atrocities on civilians while wearing uniforms of the enemy is a hallmark of the Tutsi strategy in the Great Lakes. Yes,Tutsis were killed by Hutus,especially after the plane shootdown but the RPF  fooled the whole world. You do know or should know,they’d infiltrated the FAR,Interahamwe and all the Hutu parties. This tactic is used by all the Congolese rebel movements which are actually proxies of Kigali and Kampala.

    How stupid and duped we have been all this time!! I am going to make sure as many Ugandans as possible read this info. NOT

    Fact is that there’s nothing new in these allegations. The M7-hating brigade (of whom there are legion, including a one ‘Mwaura’) has made sure that the internet is awash with this hogwash.

    M7’s father and brothers, and at least one sister are alive and well and able to refute these lies, but obviously they have better things to do. Lets leave these conspiracies for when they die.

    Seriously, you have wasted a lot of my time. Little wonder more serious members have left this forum. I think it’s about time I ended my participation here

    Spartan wrote:MWAURA wrote:spartan wrote:1. The Ole Man’s mother was a Munyankore (Kokundeka means ‘If you leave me’, I don’t know the Tutsi equivalent). Even if she was Tutsi, it wouldn’t make him Tutsi. All Ugandan tribes are patriarchal i.e children follow the father’s tribe. Maybe you are from the matriarchal Kikuyu, but never mind.

    No.She was a Royal Tutsi;that’s certain. Its a fact she crossed the border in 1945 as a single mother when M7 was a 2 or 3 year old toddler.
    spartan wrote:2. It’s not true there were Tutsis in Obote’s intel services, especially not Obote I when Mzee served there. Most Tutsi, incuding Kagame as a 3-yr old, came in 1959 when there was an insurrection against the Tutsi-ruled kingdom of King Mutara III in Rwanda, and went straight to refugee camps, with Kagame and Rwigyema ending up in Nshungerezi Refugee camp in Tooro district in Western Uganda. They were still considered refugees in Obote I btn 1966 – 71. They also considered themselves refugees (that’s why they fought to go back home, remember). It’s Amin who employed their services, along with other non-Ugandan tribes like the Anyanya and Kakwa of Sudan

    Yes,Obote’s intel was under overall control of his cousin but there was at least 2 or 3 senior operational Tutsis,one being Micombero,allegedly from Kigezi.
    spartan wrote:To be honest with you, I have heard of this so-called Tutsi scheme, and I will tell you this. It stems from a deep inferiority complex its purveyors have against the Tutsi, much like the hatred of Jews goes hand in hand with feelings of inadequacy their haters have when they compare themselves to the Jews. Otherwise how do you explain a whole region ganging up on a small tribe whose main crime is to roam with their cattle?

    I thought so too at first but the weight of the evidence proves there is a Tutsi plan to control the Great Lakes.
    spartan wrote:On that quote from the RPF, any names and places. It’s easy (and cheap) for one to put words in quotation marks and attribute them to any other person without proper references

    That quote is from the first mainstream refutation of the ‘official truth’ about the Rwanda 94 genocide. The book is a must read for all literate Africans. It undid all the bullshit by the likes of Prunier and Gourevitch and all the other RPF groupies.
    Genocide and covert operations in Africa, 1993-1999,Wayne Madsen.

    Btw,he’s an ex US naval intel guy-he knows his shit!

    Coming back to Luweero

    Like I said I first heard the atrocities were done by M7’s boys according to some Baganda buddies in the early 90s. Astonishingly his biggest supporters have publicly confirmed the same!!

    “At the burial of [UPC stalwart] Adonia Tiberondwa recently [on December 28, 2004], Maj. Gen. Kahinda Otafiire, for example, revealed that the National Resistance Army rebels used to wear UPC colours and then go into villages in Luwero and kill people in order to make the people think these were actions of the UPC government. Otafiire was boasting of the “tricks” NRA employed to win support in Luwero, but was also revealing the sinister side of Museveni and his insurgents… Each time there was a reported case of mistreatment of civilians by the army, we arrested those responsible and punished them severely.
    “The truth is that most of the soldiers in the army who were committing atrocities were Museveni’s people. And whenever we zeroed in on them, they would run to join him in the bush in Luwero. Take the example of [Colonel] Pecos Kutesa. He had an interview with William Pike on Capital Radio in Kampala in [January] 1995 in a programme called Desert Island Discs. He told Pike that he was in UNLA but as an NRA infiltrator whose mission was to undermine the credibility of the army from within.
    “Pecos Kutesa’s testimony is instructive of how Museveni personally orchestrated the killings of innocent people and the harassment of civilians not just in Luwero but other parts of Uganda as well during the 1980s. His testimony is also important because it fits very well with what Otafiire and Lt. Gen. Elly Tumwine have confessed. Let us listen to Pecos Kutesa, whose interview on Capital Radio I have kept as my evidence. He told Pike that he used to be at a roadblock in Konge. As a lieutenant, he was the man in charge of that roadblock. According to Pecos Kutesa’s own testimony on Capital Radio, Konge roadblock was the most notorious in harassing civilians, robbing them of their money and killing some. Kutesa says reports reached army headquarters of his harassment of the civilians and Oyite Ojok summoned him to Kampala for disciplinary action. He ran to the bush.” (Daily Monitor, April 15, 2005).

    http://hungryoftruth.blogspot.com/2009/10/truth-about-death-of-maj-gen-fred.html

    This same trick,the false flag,the committing of atrocities on civilians while wearing uniforms of the enemy is a hallmark of the Tutsi strategy in the Great Lakes. Yes,Tutsis were killed by Hutus,especially after the plane shootdown but the RPF  fooled the whole world. You do know or should know,they’d infiltrated the FAR,Interahamwe and all the Hutu parties. This tactic is used by all the Congolese rebel movements which are actually proxies of Kigali and Kampala.

    How stupid and duped we have been all this time!! I am going to make sure as many Ugandans as possible read this info. NOT

    Fact is that there’s nothing new in these allegations. The M7-hating brigade (of whom there are legion, including a one ‘Mwaura’) has made sure that the internet is awash with this hogwash.

    M7’s father and brothers, and at least one sister are alive and well and able to refute these lies, but obviously they have better things to do. Lets leave these conspiracies for when they die.

    Seriously, you have wasted a lot of my time. Little wonder more serious members have left this forum. I think it’s about time I ended my participation here

    I’m sorry you feel that way;truly I am. In closing lets recap.
    -M7’s own associates have confessed publicly to committing false flags.
    -Int’l investigators of impeccable reputation have confirmed the same in Rwanda,Uganda and the DRC
    Most people believe in narratives-the comfortable non rigorous assumptions about everything.Because these assumptions conform to our own sense of reality we generally believe them wholeheartedly. eg,Kibera,Africa’s largest slum with a 1mn+ inhabitants. It was only till a couple of years back an Italian mapping specialist examined the evidence and found that the likeliest estimate was 220,000 at most 250,000 souls.
    Constantly we’ve all been fed the narrative ,urban poverty,inflation,joblessness and AIDS orphans worsening poverty levels so we believed what we’ve been told-1 mn Kibera residents fed into the whole story. The fact is poverty rates have been decreasing since 2003.
    Point being? Investigate everything! You’ll find the overwhelming majority of official narratives just don’t add up-HIV/AIDS,6 mn dead Jews in WW2,30 mn Africans transported during the Transatlantic slave trade or the Global War on Terror are false.
    I’ve always been interested in the whole Tutsi thing since I was in college in 93. A Burundian Tutsi in Nairobi  said I looked Tutsi,and many Kikuyus think I’m Borana. One of  my last freelance journo assignments I was in Uganda. On the Soroti-Moroto trip a Muhima stared at me the whole way. When we landed she said:”I thought you were my brother-he died last year.” On a trip to Kigali the previous year I noticed the same thing among many Banyarwanda-quite a number are indistinguishable from Kikuyus,Kambas and Maasais……..
    Anyway,that was part of my reason for following this whole issue-along with finding the truth,not simply parroting other peoples concoctions and distortions for which,btw I have no apology.

    Criminal Paul Kagame

    #27312

    UBUTUMWA BW’UMUYOBOZI MUKURU W’URUGAGA FDLR

    UBUTUMWA BW’UMUYOBOZI MUKURU W’URUGAGA FDLR BUGENEWE ABACUNGUZI N’ABACUNGUZIKAZI N’INSHUTI Z’URUGAGA KU ISABUKURU Y’IMYAKA 57 REVOLISIYO YA RUBANDA IBAYE MU RWANDA

    BACUNGUZI,

    BACUNGUZIKAZI,

    BAVANDIMWE,

    NSHUTI Z’URUGAGA.

    Nimugire amahoro y’Imana kandi muharanire iteka UBUTABERA, AMAHORO, UBWIYUNGE n’AMAJYAMBERE byo ntego y’Urugaga rwacu FDLR.

    Tariki ya 1 Ugushyingo 1959 – tariki ya 1 Ugushyingo 2016, imyaka 57 irashize habayeho Revolisiyo ya Rubanda mu gihugu cyacu cy’u Rwanda.

    Kuri iyi tariki ya 1 Ugushyingo, mu rugaga rwacu FDLR tuzirikana kandi umunsi mukuru w’Abatagatifu bose ku bawemera. Mukwizihiza iyi minsi mikuru yombi, tuyifatanya n’umunsi mukuru w’INTWARI N’UMUSILIKARi UTAZWI (SOLDAT INCONNU) ubusanzwe twizihiza tariki ya 26 Ukwakira buri mwaka.

    Mugire isabukuru nziza y’iyi mpurirane y’iminsi mikuru.

    BACUNGUZI,

    BACUNGUZIKAZI,

    BAVANDIMWE,

    NSHUTI dusangiye gupfa no gukira.

    Revolisiyo ya Rubanda tuzirikana ku ncuro ya 57 ikomoka ku miyoborere mibi y’agatsiko k’ubwoko bumwe bw’abatutsi kamaze imyaka isaga 400 ku butegetsi bw’ingoma ya cyami gakandamiza Rubanda nyamwinshi.

    Ahagana mu 1950,bake mu bahutu bashoboye gukandagiza ikirenge mu ishuli bafashe iya mbere mu kwamagana iyo mitegekere mibi mu nyandiko yabo yitwa” Manifeste des Bahutu”.

    Mu gucubya iyo nkubiri yashakaga impindura matwara, umwami Mutara III RUDAHIGWA yaciye iteka rica ubuhake bwari bumaze kurembya Rubanda, ategeka ko umugaragu na shebuja bagabana inka n’ibikingi bikavaho, ashyiraho kandi bya nikize umusushefu ( Sous-chef) w’umuhutu witwa MBONYUMUTWA Dominiko.

    Iri teka ry’umwami ntiryanyuze abatutsi b’abahezanguni baje kwamagana iryo gabana mu nama nkuru y’igihugu bavuga ko abagabana ari abafitanye isano y’amaraso, ko nta yindi sano hagati y’umuhutu n’umututsi uretse iy’umugaragu na shebuja. HABYALIMANA GITERA Yozefu wari muri iyo nama avuganira abahutu yari ahasize agatwe  bashaka kubimuziza, maze umwami  RUDAHIRWA amukirisha iyi mvugo agira ati:” AHO KWICA GITERA WAKWICA IKIBIMUTERA”.

    Umwami Mutara III RUDAHIRWA warebwaga nabi na bene wabo b’abahezanguni ntiyateye kabiri kuko yapfuye amarabira ari mu rugendo i Bujumbura mu Burundi kuwa 25/7/1959 asimburwa ku ngoma na mwene se NDAHINDURWA JEAN BAPTISTE ku izina ry’ubwami rya Kigeli V.

    Aha tukibutsa ko izina ry’ubwami KIGELI ryari izina ry’abami b’intambara. KIGERI V NDAHINDURWA n’abambari be ntibazuyaje mu guhiga buhongo impirimbanyi z’impinduka.

    Nguko uko kuwa 1 Ugushyingo 1959, MBONYUMUTWA DOMINIKO umwe muri izo mpirimbanyi avuye mu misa mu Byimana ku munsi mukuru w’Abatagatifu bose yahohotewe hafi kwicwa n’insoresore z’abarunari zimutegeye mu nzira munsi ya KABGAYI.

    Iyo nkuru y’ihohoterwa rya MBONYUMUTWA abahutu benshi bibonagamo mu butegetsi bwariho yasakaye u Rwanda rwose mu gihe gito iba intandaro y’imyivumbagatanyo n’imvururu byakwiriye igihugu cyose aribyo byiswe REVOLISIYO YA RUBANDA twibuka none. Iyo nkubiri ya revolisiyo niyo dukesha:

    – Amatora y’abayobozi b’inzego z’ibanze mu 1960 ;

    – Gusezerera ingoma ya cyami hashingwa Repubulika muri Demokarasi kuwa 28/1/1961;

    – Ubwigenge bw’igihugu cyacu kuwa 1/7/1962.

    Ibi byose kugira ngo bigerweho, habaye ahabagabo b’intwari ndetse haboneka n’ibitambo. Ubwo tuzirikana umunsi mukuru w’Itwari n’Umusilikare utazwi, twibuke abo bose bameneye igihugu cyacu amaraso n’abakomeje kwitanga mu kurenganura rubanda.

    BACUNGUZI,

    BACUNGUZIKAZI,

    BAVANDIMWE,

    NSHUTI.

    Turizihiza iyi sabukuru ya 57 ya Revolisiyo ya rubanda, imbaga y’abanyaryanda yaravukijwe ibyiza byose dukesha iyo Revolisiyo.

    Kuva Nyakanga 1994 FPR-Inkotanyi ifata ubutegetsi mu Rwanda ku ngufu za gisilikare mu mivu y’amaraso y’abanyarwanda, ubu imiyoborere y’igihugu cyacu ntaho itaniye n’iyariho mbere ya Revolisiyo yo mu 1959:

    – Ubutegetsi bwihariwe n’agatsiko ka FPR- Inkotanyi karangajwe imbere na Paul Kagame n’abambari bako, kica kagakiza uwo gashaka, igihe gashakiye n’uko gashaka haba imbere mu gihugu ndetse no hanze yacyo.

    – Ubukungu n’ibindi byiza byose by’igihugu byikubiwe nako gatsiko mu gihe abenshi bicira isazi mu jisho.

    – Repubulika iriho ku izina gusa naho Demokarasi yagiye nka nyomberi.

    – Umutekano mu bihugu by’akarere k’ibiyaga bigari uragerwa ku mashyi kubera politiki gashoza ntambara ya Paul Kagame wigize umwami w’intambara mu karere.

    Magingo aya haravugwa ikibazo cy’umwami KIGELI V NDAHINDURWA wahunze u Rwanda ingoma ye ya cyami imaze gusezererwa, none aguye ishyanga akiyita uwami, atemera Repubulika, hakaba hari impaka zo kumugarura mu Rwanda agahambwa nk’umwami ndetse bivugwa ko agomba gusimburwa.

    Ese ubwo bwami na Repubulika dukesha Revolisiyo bizabangikana bite?

    BACUNGUZI, BACUNGUZIKAZI, NSHUTI, BAVANDIMWE DUSANGIYE GUPFA NO GUKIRA.

    Urugamba urugaga rwacu FDLR ruriho ni urwo kubohoza u Rwanda n’abanyarwanda bongeye kubohwa n’iriya ngoma ngome nkoramaraso ya FPR-Inkotanyi.

    Murumva ko ntaho rutaniye n’urw’impirimbanyi za Demokarasi na Repubulika zarwanye.

    Tugere ikirenge mu cyazo turangwa no:

    – Gukunda igihugu no kucyitangira;

    – Kugira urukundo n’ubumwe nyakuri;

    – Kuzuzanya no koroherana muri byose na hose;

    – Kurangwa n’ukuri mu byo dukora byose;

    – N’indi myifatire mboneza rugamba ibereye umucunguzi.

    BACUNGUZI,

    BACUNGUZIKAZI,

    BAVANDIMWE,

    NSHUTI.

    Muri uru rugamba rwacu turagaya byimazeyo ibigwari, abagambanyi, ibisahiranda n’abandi bose bakomeje gutiza umwanzi umurindi bifatanya nawe mu bikorwa byose bigamije gusenya urugaga rwacu FDLR, mizero yo gutabarwa kw’abanyarwanda.

    Nubwo ingorane zitabura, buri mucunguzi nyawe ntakwiye gucika intege kuko buri gihe umwanzi aducira icyobo, IMANA NYIRURUGAMBA ikaducira icyanzu. Turusheho kuyigororokera, tuyiture ibitunaniye, nta shiti isezerano ry’abanyarwanda izarisohoza kandi ukuri kuzatsinda.

    HARAKABAHO URUGAGA RWACU FDLR N’ABACUNGUZI BARWO;

    HARAKABAHO REVOLISIYO YA RUBANDA;

    HARAKABAHO INSHUTI Z’URUGAGA FDLR

    MUGIRE AMAHORO Y’IMANA.

    Bikozwe kuwa 27/10/2016

     

    (Sé)

    BYIRINGIRO VICTOR

    General-Major

    Président ai des FDLR

    Criminal Paul Kagame

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