March 18, 2016 at 7:41 pm #1508
The “right and proper tale ” would have it that the Rwandan Patriotic Front under the brilliant military and political leadership of current Rwandan President Paul Kagame, who along with many fellow officers was trained in the best American and British military academies, ended the genocide by taking Kigali on the fourth of July 1994 and by forming a new government on July 19, 1994. A patriotic liberation movement with the right friends puts an end to the worst crime imaginable, similar to the Holocaust, and all that happens on the fourth of July.
The first problem with this part of the right and proper tale is that Kigali was not taken on the fourth of July. The decisive battle that allowed the RPF to take the capital city of Rwanda was fought on July 2. Paul Kagame marched into Kigali on July 3. Wasn’t Paris liberated when Charles de Gaulle marched in on August 25, 1944? Nobody changed that date to make others happy. But for Rwanda, important people in influential positions preferred the fourth of July. So that day chosen. It was also important not to be too close to July 1, which was Rwandan Independence Day since 1962 and still a powerful symbol of the social revolution that now had to be erased from people’s memories. The victors then just had to declare the fourth of July the new Rwandan National Day and for the pipers to play the tune. Everybody knows of course which tune was to be played.
The second problem is that the massacre of civilians did not end with the victory of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. Civilians have been massacred in Rwanda steadily ever since and massacres have continued even more seriously in the neighbouring Congo.
The choice of the fourth of July may be a minor point, but in politics nothing is left to chance, especially not the symbols. Hopefully, it will be like an alarm bell that might lead people re-read the right and proper tale with an eye out for those optical illusions so often used to distort and misinform.
The army led by Paul Kagame was never a liberation army. Most people knew that from the beginning. The Rwandan Patriotic Front and its leader were more like the paid arsonist masquerading as firemen than the patriot who saved the people from the fire as the official story would have us believe.
President Kagame with daughter
Until October 1, 1990, the troops that invaded Rwanda were uniformed soldiers in Ugandan National Army who marched to the orders of Yoweri Museveni, President of Uganda and commander in chief. The invading troops consisted mainly of Rwandans who had lived in Uganda since the social revolution and independence of Rwanda in 1962. They had been at war in Uganda since 1981 as part of the guerrilla forces known as the National Resistance Army until it took power in Uganda in 1986 and Yoweri Museveni became President.
On September 28, 1990, 4000 Ugandan soldiers and officers, including former army Commander and Ugandan Defence Minister Fred Rwigyema left their barracks fully equipped with weapons and vehicles. They travelled hundreds of kilometres in Uganda to the Rwandan border and attacked the few Rwandan border guards on October 1. They then advanced some 70 kilometres into Rwanda. By October 4, the invading troops were within 70 kilometres of the Rwandan capital Kigali.
Everywhere in the world, that attack on October 1 would be described as an invasion of one country by another. It was not an incursion, nor a civil war, nor an increase in ethnic tension. The word is invasion. In legal terms and according to principles established at the Nuremberg trials that are so often referred to in the Rwandan tragedy, that invasion is no less than the worst war crime because it is a crime against peace. However, that invasion has been at best trivialized ever since it happened, at worst omitted altogether from the tale of events. One of the worst examples was a long article in the New York Times Magazine on September 15, 2002, entitled The Minister of Rape. Not a word is mentioned about the invasion. We only learn that “tensions increased in 1990.” 5
A crime of that magnitude should normally have provoked a sharp international reaction, especially considering that when Ugandan troops invaded, Rwandan President Habyarimana and Ugandan President Museveni were both in New York for a UNICEF meeting. Moreover, two days earlier, on September 28, President Habyarimana told the United Nations General Assembly that his government would offer citizenship and travel documents to all Rwanda refugees wherever they were and that it would repatriate all those who wanted to return to Rwanda.
International reports on the invasion hinted that the invading army had taken or was about to take Kigali. American authorities jumped suspiciously quickly to offer President Habyarimana political asylum in the United States. Moreover, according to a story that is surely not very right and proper but still stubbornly tenacious, the late Rwandan president met the United States Ambassador in Kigali before leaving the country and asked him if the United States had any information about an invasion by Uganda. The Ambassador offered to make some intelligence inquiries–the CIA–and then informed President Habyarimana that there was no such information and that he could safely go to New York.
On learning of the invasion, the Rwandan president immediately returned home but stopped off in Belgium where, suspiciously, he also received an offer of asylum. Belgian news reports amplified the invaders’ military success. Meanwhile, Ugandan President Museveni remained in the United States even though his army had just suffered the worst mutiny in its history that involved troops, officers and military equipment. Though he is an army man to the very core and the champion of professional and disciplined armies that Africa supposedly needed so badly, the president of Uganda decided to sit back in New York while a whole section of his cherished army revolted and invaded another country wearing their Ugandan uniforms.
The same Yoweri Museveni had become the darling of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and United States Diplomacy since the middle of the 1980s. He was another of the former leftist guerrilla leaders who came over to the gospel of good governance, structural adjustment, privatization and, judging by the turn of events, the remodelling of African geography. The United States saw Uganda as a rampart against Islamic fundamentalism in Sudan, and its president Yoweri Museveni as a trustworthy ally to aid US covert operations in Southern Sudan. Former President Jimmy Carter described Museveni as “one of Africa’s most important leaders”. Madeleine Albright spoke of him as “a beacon of hope for Africa”, whereas the journalist with the New Yorker, Philip Gourevitch promoted him for years as the “éminence grise of the new leadership in central Africa”, before making a surprising flip-flop in May 2003 when he called him an “arsonist masquerading as a fireman” in a confusing article on the Congo. 6
President Museveni unconvincingly distanced himself from the invasion by pleading ignorance and surprise and by complaining about how his officers and comrades-in-arms, who became the commanders of the RPF, had tricked him in October 1990. Though totally disingenuous, Museveni’s excuses satisfied his friends in the “international community”. “The truth of the matter is,” he declared in a 1991 address, “that these people conspired, took us by surprise, and went to Rwanda, which was not particularly difficult…. We had some information that the Banyarwanda in Uganda were up to something, but we shared it with the Rwandan government. They actually had, or should have had, more information because, after all, it was their business, not ours, to follow up who was plotting what.” 7
The eminent President Museveni would like us to believe that the intelligence agency of one country–Rwanda in this case–should spy and monitor all the movements and actions of entire regiments of another country’s army–Uganda–and take the necessary action to prevent mutiny, revolt and aggression against neighbours. Let’s apply the infallible logic to other countries on other continents. What would happen if Cuba or Mexico did to the United States what Museveni said Rwanda should have done to Uganda? And what if they took action to protect themselves from U.S. interference? What if Ireland did the same in the United Kingdom? Or Algeria in France? France in Canada? India in Pakistan? China in Vietnam? It is obviously ridiculous. Are we expected to believe him just because it is in Africa?
Countries that spy on each other as Museveni suggested Rwanda should have done are asking for war. Yet we are invited to believe that the Rwandan government made a serious mistake by not spying on the Ugandan army and by not intervening to prevent it from invading Rwanda. That error was so serious that the “new éminence grise of Africa” Yoweri Museveni was justified in not punishing the mutineers in his army.
The man who refused to punish the senior officers who mutinied in his own army is the same man that US diplomacy, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund adored particularly because of his unbending leadership and his vision of a professional and disciplined army in Africa. All of Museveni’s speeches convey the message of a professional and disciplined army. He talked that way before and after he took power in Uganda, before and after the invasion of Rwanda in 1990, before and after the Rwandan Patriotic Front took power in Kigali. Museveni knew what he was talking about. He took power in 1986 after a long guerrilla war, and then, between 1986 and 1990, he mercilessly suppressed revolt in his army.
In his address five years after taking power and four months after the invasion of Rwanda, Museveni left no doubt about his views on military discipline. “As you know, we have dealt very harshly with discipline. There is a very strict code of conduct for the National Resistance Army and a mechanism for dealing with wayward soldiers. No soldier is spared, whatever his rank may be.” 8
One month before the invasion of Rwanda, in August 1990, President Museveni addressed Ugandan army officers including, undoubtedly, those who were already preparing to invade Rwanda. His subject was combating counterrevolutionary insurgency and his main message was the importance of discipline, loyalty, military training, unity and the size of the army. He also made a plea in favour of using military intelligence however it may be obtained. All these elements converge in the fight against insurgency. 9
A month after making this speech, the strict disciplinarian, raised and trained in a world of conspiracies and rebellion, sat passively watching his own troops mutiny and invade Rwanda, thereby threatening peace and security throughout central Africa. These were not a few low-ranking officers. Entire regiments invaded, led first by Uganda’s former Defence Minister Fred Rwigyema, killed in the invasion, and then by the Ugandan Chief of Military Intelligence, Paul Kagame, who quickly returned from the United States where Museveni had sent him for military training. The invading Ugandan troops that would soon be known as the Rwandan Patriotic Army comprised many senior officers, 150 middle level officer and even some of President Museveni’s own bodyguards.
In the next three and half years, Museveni continued to watch “passively” as his former troops went in and out of Uganda as they liked. Uganda became the conveyor of men, munitions and materiel to an army dedicated to overthrowing the Rwandan government. Despite Uganda’s obvious implication in this war, no imperial power ever once threatened to punish President Museveni or to cut off support to his country.
Yoweri Museveni’s August 1990 address to the officers of the Ugandan National Resistance Army on “How to fight a Counterrevolutionary Insurgency” reads like a blueprint for the invasion and war that some of his officers were soon to conduct in Rwanda against President Habyarimana. The difference is that Museveni’s officers would soon become be calling themselves Rwandan “insurgents” or “rebels”. 10
“We had to reject the concept of ‘a small but efficient’ army…” he said. “This notion is nothing but suicidal. Insurgents do not have to do much, but they will have succeeded in their devices if they simply terrorize the population, stop them from producing wealth for the country, dismantle the network of civil administration and block communications. Once the state does not stop insurgents from doing this on a large scale, the country will rapidly lose income and find it impossible to support the army… Insurgents will be in a position to create a situation of strategic stalemate or even to launch a strategic counteroffensive to seize state power.”
That is exactly what happened between 1990 and 1994. Moreover, shortly after the Ugandan officers led the October invasion of Rwanda, President Museveni demanded that Rwanda agree to a cease-fire and negotiate with the insurgents, now called the Rwandan Patriotic Front. That was the “strategic stalemate” he had talked about in his August 1990 address.
Rwanda is so tiny. What in the world would the United States want in such an insignificant remote place?
The notion that Africa is, at best, on the fringe of the international community, at worst, completely cut off from it, has been common currency for centuries. Africa is supposedly of no interest to major powers in the world, except as a means to soothe guilty consciences or to receive charity and benefit from the altruism of those powers. That idea is deep-rooted. Former Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien echoed it in April 2002 shortly before the G8 Summit at Kananaskis when he announced that Africa would become part of the international community in the twenty-first century. It seems to have escaped Jean Chrétien that most African countries had been members of the United Nations since becoming independent in the 1960s.
In 1885, when Europe was set to pounce on Africa, the official British position was that of the “reluctant empire” that was compelled to leave the hallowed isles to look after Africa. Historians consolidated this idea. In a famous address first published in 1883, J.R. Seeley observed that the expansion of England in America and Asia was perceived to be almost accidental. It was “an empire acquired in a fit of absence of mind”. 11 Subsequently, historians showed that England was not as selfless as it let on and that expansion of the empire closely followed British commercial expansion – the flag followed commerce.
The same image of the “reluctant empire” prevails in all descriptions of the United States in central Africa at the end of the twentieth century, and now in the twenty-first. Moreover, the U.S. State Department carefully and successfully cultivated that image, which could be summed up as follows: We don’t want to be there, we don’t want to be forced to intervene, we have no interests there, we are only the honest broker working for the good of humanity.
The proof that the United States succeeded in imposing that image is the virtual absence of publications dealing critically with the United States’ strategic goals in Africa. Discussion of the American role is always couched in talk of democracy, human rights, good governance, trade, and the American determination not to repeat the Somalia fiasco during which 18 U.S. soldiers were killed. Washington has adopted exactly the same tack in its approach to Liberia.
Although former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was not convinced of the United States’ strategic interest in Rwanda – “I have no real information to that effect”, he told me in a November 2002 interview” – he has nod doubt about the Congo. “In the Congo, yes, absolutely! There’s tremendous wealth there.” Boutros-Ghali added that British intelligence services were very active in the region through Ugandan President Museveni. He also pointed out that the 1898 Fashoda incident, which is seen as a French defeat in Africa, “still dominates people’s minds”. 12
Facts contradict the image of the “reluctant empire. For the United States, Uganda as well as Rwanda and Burundi became increasingly important both for economic and strategic reasons in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The importance of building a front to counter the expansion of Islam in Africa through the Sudan cannot be underestimated. Uganda had a strong, experienced army and was led by a president willing to work for the Americans. U.S. support for the Christian rebellion in southern Sudan was funnelled through Kampala and with the help Museveni’s army. South Africa at that time was also unpredictable. Despite official American anti-apartheid position, South Africa remained an important ally and Washington was concerned about what might happen should that country be lost as an ally.
When Ugandan troops invaded Rwanda, the future leader Paul Kagame, who had been Uganda’s Chief of Military Intelligence, was training at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, under the International Military Education and Training program known as IMET. In fact, the majority of Ugandan military personnel sent to the United States through the IMET program would soon become commanders of the Rwanda Patriotic Front.
IMET was established in the mid 1970s. It is described as an “instrument of influence” by which the United States is able to affect the internal and external policy behaviour of recipient military institutions and governments in a manner congenial with U.S. foreign policy interests. 13 The IMET program, and a modern version known as Enhanced-IMET, was also used to prepare Rwandan troops for the invasion of Zaire starting in 1996.
The United States obviously placed much hope in Yoweri Museveni’s Uganda. In addition to the military links, American non-military aid to Uganda between 1989 and 1992 totalled $183 million, which was twice what the United States granted to Rwanda during the same period.
It has been said that the invasion of Rwanda by Ugandan troops in 1990 was aimed at Kinshasa not Kigali. The war that has followed in the Congo and the scramble by Western corporations for control of the vast Congolese natural resources makes that interpretation very plausible. The British and the Americans have coveted resources in eastern Congo since the end of the nineteenth century. With President Mobutu’s health failing and his grip on power weakening, the void foreseen whet the appetite of an American empire giddy after fall of the Soviet Union.
Since the war began in the Congo in 1996, the rush of American, Belgian, Canadian, British and French corporations for diamonds and gold and other natural resources in the region has been widely documented and denounced. An internet search with the words “Congo AND diamonds”, “Congo AND gold mines” or “Congo AND coltan” produces numerous reliable studies with figures and details on the corporations that have snatched up Congolese wealth. Before the war, these resources belonged to Zaire and were a major source of income. Now they are under the direct control of foreign corporations protected by proxy armies set up since the 1996 invasion.
The economic determinism of these documents is their main weakness. Their eloquent and detailed descriptions of how American and European interests have taken over African wealth are undermined by credence they give to imperial cant that has allowed it all come about. That cant would have it that Western powers led by the United States are involved in Africa to defend human rights and democracy, to combat the evils of corruption, dictatorship, impunity and genocide, and to favour development. There is not much new under the sun. When England colonized Africa, people were supposed to believe the goal was to stamp out the Arab slave trade and uplift Africans through Christian civilization.
In spring 1993, the United States Secretary of State Warren Christopher declared to the African-American Institute that “The people of Africa know where their future lies: not with corrupt dictators like Mobutu, but with courageous democrats in every part of the continent. From Senegal to Benin, from Madagascar to Mali, African nations are building strong democratic institutions.”
What was Warren Christopher’s real message? First, the United States was staking out the areas it targeted. These just happened to be all countries with close ties to France – note that every country mentioned is a member of the Francophone Summit. Secondly, Washington had decided that Mobutu, who had faithfully served the United States for thirty years as an anti-Communist strongman, was now on his way out, and that the Africans’ desire for change and their revolt against Mobutu would be used to advance American pawns in Africa.
The anointed strongman in Africa would now be Yoweri Museveni, even though the Ugandan president thumbed his nose at the sacrosanct notions like human rights, democracy, multiparty systems and economic transparency. In retrospect, though a large number of Congolese wanted to get rid of Mobutu, were they to have a choice now, even the most militant among them would prefer Mobutu’s Zaire to the Congo killing fields that war launched in 1996 has foisted upon their country and their people.
The official position of the United States and of most European countries regarding Africa remained that of reluctance and disinterest. Nonetheless, their diplomatic, economic, political, legal and military involvement increased exponentially between 1990 and 2003. This involvement has became much more direct and very often bypasses the official recognized channels that should govern international relations.
The Rwandan government reacted sharply to the invasion and was supported by France, Zaire and Belgium, though the Belgians soon turned on the Rwandan government. The invasion pitted Ugandan troops that had been at war for years in Uganda against a small Rwandan army that had not seen in combat since 1969. President Habyarimana’s government also took action internally and, not surprisingly, arrested some 8000 Rwandan citizens, mainly Tutsis, holding them for periods varying from a few days to six months.
The intrepid representatives of the New York based Africa Watch (formerly Human Rights Watch/Africa) immediately claimed that the arrests provided verifiable proof of serious human rights violations. Later with their 20/20 hindsight, the arrests became the proof of the genocidal intentions of the Rwandan Government leaders. Africa Watch rang the alarm and it has not stopped ringing ever since.
Foreign diplomats from Belgium, the United States, Switzerland and Canada deplored the action of the government of Rwanda. The Belgian Ambassador Johann Swinnen rushed to the stadium in Kigali where the prisoners were held and, to the joy of those arrested, he condemned the Rwandan government for its human rights violations – would that they had been so prompt when Pinochet locked up thousands in a stadium in Santiago, Chile. Those Western powers obviously wanted to warn President Habyarimana that the going would be tough and that his days were probably numbered.
A few questions must be raised before we delve deeper into this story.
Is it normal in the search for justice to condemn one side in a war for human rights violations and not even question the morality of the aggressors, those who violated the principles of all the charters of rights humanity has ever drafted? Is it right to shout about how a government violates rights and turn a blind eye to the launching of an aggressive war?
The vast majority of Western human rights organisations and their representatives appear to consider it perfectly normal to whitewash the invaders and denounce the invaded country, its leaders and its people. At the top of the list is Alison Des Forges, an ubiquitous American Rwanda activist who has written reams of reports including the Africa Watch report on the arrests. In a statement made under oath in a 1995 Montreal hearing, Ms Des Forges declared that human rights activists “do not examine the issue of who makes war. We see war as an evil and we try to prevent the existence of war to be an excuse for massive human rights violations.” It is like an armed break and entry during which the homeowner defends himself. The Justice Department arrests the home owner for possession of arms and lets the robber off scot-free.
The refusal of human rights organizations to condemn the worst human rights violation, namely the invasion, invalidates all the reports they have published and weakens the foundations on which the “right and proper” tale has been built. It bears sad witness to the lightness with which many of theses groups undertake their work, and also reveals the tacit agreement between them and the big Western powers who wield much more influence than the Rwandan government could dream of having. Worst of all, however, is the blatant double standard they have in respect to Africa. The same groups would never dare apply the same criteria in cases of war in or by their own countries.
In his important Discourse on colonialism published in 1955, Aimé Césaire denounced a similar double standard observed among European humanists. Though many humanists were anti-nazis in the Second World War, they avoided taking up the fight against colonialism. “And that is the great thing I hold against pseudo-humanism,” wrote Césaire. “For too long it has diminished the rights of man, that its concept of those rights has been – and still is – narrow and fragmentary, incomplete and biased and, all things considered, sordidly racist”. 14
Eight thousand Rwandans were arrested by the Habyarimana government, but all were released within six months. For a country that has been invaded, neither the number of arrests nor their duration is excessive, especially considering the revelations of former leaders and collaborators of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. One such leader is Valens Kajeguhakwa, a business man and one of the RPF’s main financial backers. In 2001, his former comrade-in-arms Paul Kagame forced him to leave the country. Kajeguhakwa, who had also been close to President Habyarimana before he joined the RPF in 1990, published a book in which he described himself as the “bridge that clandestinely united the action of patriots outside and within Rwanda.” 15 He boasts of the invaluable role of his vast network of civilian and military informers that he had carefully developed and who were infiltrated throughout Rwanda up to the highest echelons of the Government of Rwanda.
“They were placed in the army, in the Gendarmerie, in government ministries, in all the main public and private companies, in the National Bank of Rwanda, in parishes, in markets in Kigali, Butare, Ruhengeri, and Gisenyi, in the University in Butare and Nyakinama, in the prisons in Gisehyi and Ruhengeri.” Valens Kajeguhakwa left Rwanda for Uganda just before the invasion in October 1990. He points out in his book that he ensured his network would continue working for him and the Rwandan Patriotic Front in his absence.
Leaders of the Rwandan Patriotic Front claim that they had 36 clandestine cells operating inside Rwanda on October 1, 1990. The number of cells grew steadily as the invaders gained ground and especially as they gained international recognition and support. The same sources boast that by 1993 the RPF could activate 146 clandestine cells in Kigali alone. 16 Ever since the Spanish Civil War, an expression accurately describes such cells: a fifth column. In Rwanda, however, that fifth column was and still is conveniently qualified as innocent human rights activists.
The number of arrests and their duration were limited. Since memory is always selective and always very poor in powerful dominating countries, a few comparisons would be helpful.
According to Professor Panikos Panayi who has studied the question of minorities in wartime, “Some of the most systematic persecution of racial and ethnic minorities in recent history has taken place during the two World Wars. Anyone studying the twentieth century cannot avoid this conclusion. In fact, the historian dealing with any period of human development would find that the years 1914-18 and 1939-45 witnessed unprecedented heights of intolerance towards outgroups.” 17 Professor Panayi also deplores the lack of research conducted about minorities in wartime.
In 1914, Canada was automatically drawn into the First World War by England when it declared war on August 4, 1914, but the country was not invaded. In fact, it has not been invaded since 1812. Nevertheless, two weeks after the war began in Europe, the Parliament of Canada adopted the War Measures Act granting the government power to arrest, detain, exclude and deport individuals. Under the Act, the government could refuse release on bail and suspend habeas corpus for any person suspected of being an enemy alien. Canada interned 8579 people in “concentration camps”–the term coined in the Boer War was still fashionable. Most were Ukrainians that Canadian officials mistook for Austrians.
As war progressed, naturalized German Canadians including many born in Canada soon went from being “among our best immigrants, white people like ourselves” as J.S. Woodsworth noted, to “sub-human” or “blood-crazed madmen”. 18 In 1917, to the applause of much of English Canada, the Parliament adopted the War-time Elections Act that took away voting rights from tens of thousands of naturalized Canadians, most of whom were Ukrainian.
During the Second World War, Canada interned 21,000 of the country’s 22,086 residents of Japanese origin. Ninety-one percent of those interned were Canadian citizens. Officially, Canada “evacuated” the Japanese Canadians, who were dispersed throughout Canada, sometimes up to 5000 kilometres from their homes. All their property was confiscated, farms, homes and fishing boats, never to be returned. When the war was over, none was allowed to return to British Columbia, and 3000 Japanese Canadians were deported to Japan.
The United States interned all Japanese Americans after the attack on Pearl Harbour. Pearl Harbour, it should be noted, was not an invasion and did not touch continental United States. The 1940 U.S. census established that 116,947 American residents were of Japanese origin. Sixty percent were born in the United States. In 1942, that country interned – evacuated according to the official euphemism – all the 119,803 men, women and children of Japanese origin. 19
Countries are obsessed with the loyalty of their citizens in wartime. Every minority and every internal nation becomes suspicious. In 1917, Londoners rioted against Jews who were they accused of being opposed to conscription. In the United States, suspicious minorities were tarred and feathered or even lynched. In Canada, the loyalty of French Canadians was immediately questioned in both World Wars, as it was during the Boer War. French Canadians were called Zombies during the Second World War because of their opposition to conscription.
Former colonial possessions are inevitably among the first suspects of countries at war. Ireland, for instance, was independent from England since 1922 and remained neutral during the Second World War. When Winston Churchill suspected these former subjects of Her Majesty to be sympathetic to the Germans, he threatened to bomb all the ports in Ireland.
The treatment of minorities in wartime requires much further study. Suffice it to say that self-righteous human rights activists in Europe and North America would have been well advised to look closely at their own countries’ records before pouncing on Rwanda.
The invading army known by the “right thinking” as a liberation army, settled in for a prolonged guerrilla war when they realized that the Rwandan army was tougher than had been expected. At the end of October 1990, the RPF pulled partly back into Uganda which it used as a base to launch guerrilla attacks. In November, however, Belgium joined Uganda in calling on Rwanda to negotiate with the invading army. Here was the “strategic stalemate” Ugandan President Museveni had talked about on August 1990. The United States and Britain soon joined the chorus of calls for negotiations.
Though the RPF was talking liberation and human rights in all its international press relations in English and French, its writings in Kinyarwanda left no doubt as to its desire to return Rwanda to a pre-independence situation in which the Tutsi minority would dominate. 20 This was confirmed as the RPF behaved like all occupation armies do. They attacked and terrorized civilians, forcing them to flee in large numbers, and targeted the Hutu peasants rather than the Rwandan troops.
What liberation army can boast that it emptied one of the country’s, and the world’s, most densely populated areas? Two and a half years after the invasion, only 1800 people lived in an area of northern Rwanda that previously had a population of 800,000. As the “liberators” advanced, the Hutu peasants fled. By April 1993, Rwanda had more than one million internal refugees. That means one million farmers (one seventh of the total population) who are no longer producing on the most fertile lands in the country. It also means one million people to house and feed, and hundreds of thousands of children absent from school which caused great anxiety among parents.
The Rwandan Minister of Agriculture, Husbandry and Forests in 1992, James Gasana, described the situation in the war torn Byumba prefecture north of Kigali in a book published in 2002. “A prefecture that had been the country’s breadbasket now had the largest population in need of welfare and the highest mortality rate due to malnutrition.” 21
When have we seen a people flee from its liberators? It didn’t happen in France (1940-1945), nor in Cuba (1951-1959), nor in Algeria (1954-1962). The “right and proper tale” would have us believe, however, that the invading RPF army were “liberators”.
These “liberators” were also able to count on a powerful ally. That ally known as the Structural Adjustment Program or SAP was being imposed in unison by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and USAID. Acronyms have a canny way of transmitting messages, and in this case it is particularly eloquent, both in English, SAP, and in French, PAS (Programme d’ajustement structurel). The message could not be clearer: PAS d’argent (no money) unless you SAP the very foundations of the society you built since 1960. That means deregulating the economy, devaluating currency, eliminating agricultural subsidies, privatizing utilities and state-owned corporations, laying off civil servants and more.
The impact in Rwanda was felt immediately. Inflation increased from 1 percent in 1989 to 20 percent in 1991. Devaluation of the currency was even more brutal. In 1990, one U.S. dollar was worth 82 Rwandan Francs. In 1993, it was worth 183 Francs.
The taskmasters at the World Bank, the FMI and USAID knew exactly what was happening. They could see an offshoot of the army led by their friend Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni pitted against a government led by Juvénal Habyarimana. Whereas Museveni was calling on Africa to abandon its anti neo-colonial rhetoric and state loud and clear that Africa’s problems were of its own making, Rwandan President Habyarimana had a relatively prosperous and stable economy but was not as favourably disposed to the new dogma brought down by the by the Bretton Wood institutions.
Privatization and a totally free-market economy presented specific problems for Rwanda. The social revolution of 1959 and independence combined with the growth of a public sector had enabled Rwandan Hutus to gain some economic power and prestige. The private sector, where incomes were much higher, remained largely dominated by Tutsis. The aggressive privatization and deregulation imposed by the Structural Adjustment Program meant an inevitable return towards what had been rejected since the 1960s and a reinforcement of the Tutsis’ power in the economy.
Structural adjustment had another perverse effect on Rwanda. Funds would be given to countries for downsizing their armies. When Ugandan troops invaded Rwanda, the country officially reduced the size of its army. On paper all those Ugandan troops at war in Rwanda were no longer part of the Museveni’s army. Funding to Uganda therefore increased proportionally. Under the same policy, funding to Rwanda was cut since the Habyarimana government increased the size of its army threefold in order to fight the invaders. These were the funds used by Uganda to finance the war in Rwanda. James Gasana, who became Rwandan Defense Minister until he left the country in 1993, wrote a scathing criticism of that policy. “It is no secret that funds granted to two poor countries at war are used to procure weapons. That undercover funding by international development banks prevented international public opinion from understanding the international nature of the war.” 22
Each time the government of Rwanda hesitated to negotiate with the invader or showed reluctance during negotiations, the bankers in New York and Washington would put the pressure on Kigali by refusing to provide the funds the government needed and counted on. Each time the RPF would gain new international recognition, the moral of the Rwandan armed forces would plummet as they increasingly got the impression they were fighting against the whole world. As could easily be predicted by anyone who cared to look, the war aggravated latent hostility between Hutu majority and the Tutsi minority.
As could be expected, the expression “peace process” had quietly crept into the vocabulary of the international community led by the United States and Britain. The “peace process” was to be initiated at Arusha in Tanzania. Peace process essentially means war, a war in which the sponsors of the process choose the winner before the meeting they call takes place. They then pretend to be neutral during negotiations. Having bought time, they tighten the noose on the designated loser and prepare the ground to install a government that is totally subjected to their will. Peace process was on the lips of all the right thinking people, as of course was multiparty democracy.
5 “The Minister of Rape”, New York Times Magazine, Sunday, September 15, 2002, p. 1.
6 Philip Gourevitch, The Congo Test in The New Yorker, May 30, 2003.
7 Yoweri Museveni, What is Africa’s problem?, University of Minnesota Press 2000, p. 106.
8 Ibid. p. 178.
9 Ibid. p. 132.
10 Ibid. How to fight a Counterrevolutionary Insurgency, pp. 132-140.
11 J. R. Seeley, The Expansion of England, Chicago and London, 1971, p. 12.
12 Fashoda was a fort located on the Upper Nile (Now in Sudan). French and British military missions met there on September 18, 1898. France wanted to set up a series of forts from west to east across Africa – Dakar to Djibouti. The British wanted to build a railway from Uganda to Egypt and link its “possessions” in Africa from south to north – the Cape to Cairo. In November 1898, France withdrew from Fashoda and conceded it to the British. It was subsequently decided that the head waters of the Nile and the Congo rivers would delineate the British and French spheres of influence.
13 McNair Paper Number 44, Chapteer 6, October 1995. Institute for National Strategic Studies.
14 Aimé Césaire, Discourse on Colonialism, Monthly Review Press, 1972, p. 15.
15 Valens KAJEGUHAKWA, Rwanda : de la terre de paix à la terre de sang et après?, Éditions Rémi Perrin, 2001, p. 223.
16 William Cyrus REED, Exile, Reform and the Rise of the RPF, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1996, pp 479-501.
17 Panikos PANAYI, ed. Minorities in wartime : national and racial groupings in Europe, North America, and Austrialia during the two world wars, Oxford (England) Berg, 1993, p. 3.
18 J.S. Woodsworth, Strangers Within Our Gates, cited in John Herd THOMPSON, Ethnic Minorities during Two World Wars, Ottawa, 1991, Canadian Historical Association.
19 Roger DANIELS, Concentration Camps : North America, Japanese in the United States and Canada During World War II, Krieger Publishing, FL USA, 1981.
20 Enjeux nationaux et dynamiques régionales dans l’Afrique des Grands lacs, Journée d’Étude, Lille, June 20, 1992, under the direction of André GUICHAOUA, URA Tiers-Monde/Afrique.
21 James K. GASANA, Rwanda : du parti-état à l’état-garnison, L’Harmattan, 2002, p. 89.
22 GASANA, op. cit. p. 76
Criminal Paul Kagame
September 29, 2016 at 11:50 pm #27289
When Kagame’s forces stop killing us
I was shocked to learn from my former student, Kayla Oliver LAW ’18, now an editor of the Yale Law Journal, that Yale invited President Paul Kagame of Rwanda, the most murderous dictator in all Africa, to speak about democracy. That was a colossal mistake.
During my first weeks serving as U.S. Ambassador to Burundi, the twin-country neighbor of Rwanda, I joined the U.S. Ambassador to Rwanda to meet then-Col. Paul Kagame. He was dressed in camouflage uniform and stood in a shattered warehouse amid the rubble in the capital city, Kigali. Open warfare in the most disastrous genocide in decades had ended only a few weeks before. But revenge had not.
I told Kagame that the UN Refugee Camp, four miles inside the Burundi-Rwanda border, was still receiving 1,000 new Rwandan refugees daily. In my visit to the camp — which housed almost 100,000 — I interviewed camp refugees, asking when they would return to their home country. Their reply was always the same: “When Kagame’s forces stop killing us.”
Kagame’s response to me was insufficient. He told me that occasionally some of his troops might engage in personal retribution, but that revenge was not his policy. This was not the case: genocidal killing and intimidation have, in fact, been his consistent policy for all his 22 years in power.
Human Rights Watch, among others, has documented some his continuing civil rights violations. The United Kingdom, Spain and several European nations no longer grant this head of state entry into their countries.
My wife’s and my book “From Bloodshed to Hope in Burundi,” endorsed by Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton and by Paul Rusesabagina, the hero of “Hotel Rwanda” and a U.S. Medal of Freedom recipient, has a chapter on Kagame and the consequences of his murderous actions on Burundi.
Why has the USA not censured Kagame?
Probably because Kagame himself and some of his troops were trained at a US military base in Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, in the 1990s. The Pentagon has held banquets honoring this horrific dictator.
Several years ago I phoned a Danish missionary, Knut Hansen, who had lived 32 years along the Rwandan border in ministering, educating and caring for the people of Burundi and Rwanda. When asked for his current assessment of Kagame, he replied “Bob, Kagame is the worst dictator in all of Africa; there is blood all over his hands.”
It is well-known and widely published that Kagame’s secret police murdered on the streets in South Africa a former member of Kagame’s administration who had abandoned Kagame and gone into hiding. This killing is well documented and legendary.
He claims to now have democratic elections with numerous political parties having names on the ballot. But Kagame’s people count the votes and give him over 90 percent of those cast. Citizens, knowing they have no secret ballot, either do not vote, or for their own safety, cast their votes for Kagame. It is as if Hitler or Stalin were holding the elections. These elections are not secret or trust worthy; the populous votes as Kagame wants for fear of retribution.
Yet Yale has honored him. Those at Yale who invited Kagame should remember the famous admonition of a 19th-century head of Magdalene College, Oxford: “You will find it a good idea, sir, always to verify your references.”
Senator Robert Krueger is a former US Ambassador to Burundi, US Ambassador-at-Large to Mexico, US Ambassador to Botswana, US Congressman (D.-Texas), US Senator (D.-Texas), US Special Representative to the Southern African Development Community, retired. Currently, professor in the Practice, Political Science Department, Texas Tech University.
Criminal Paul KagameNovember 3, 2016 at 8:35 pm #27307
Intore na zo ngo zirwanya ubukoloni. Ni ko zivuga.
Ariko birumvikana ko zitazi abakoloni icyo aricyo, abo ari bo n’aho bava.
Warwanya ubukoloni ute se kandi ushyigikiye mu bitekerezo n’ibikorwa mondialisation ya capitalism (ubukoloni)?
Warwanya ubukoloni ute ukora ibiraka byo gusambura Leta zigenga?
Usehera umutungo w’igihugu abakoloni?
Ukomera amashyi intambara z’abakoloni?
Wimurira amashuri mu bakoloni ukayaca mu rugo? U&a umuco?
Nta muntu urwanya ikintu atazi. Iyo ushaka kurwanya ubukoloni urabanza ukigenga.
Criminal Paul KagameNovember 3, 2016 at 8:37 pm #27308
USAID IRABIZI NEZA KO INZARA YATEGURIYE U RWANDA IGIYE GUTANGIRA AKAZI KO KURINGANIZA URUBYARO . KUBITANGAZA KWAYO KO HAABAHO INZARA IDASANZWE MURI 2017 NI UKUGIRA NGO YO IBYIKUREMO IBISHYIRE KU BIKORESHO BYAYO NKA KAGAME NA LETA Y IBIGORYI YASHYIZEHO. ARIKO NTITUYOBEWE KO USAID IBIFITEMO URUHARE. IGIHUGU NI INZEGO ZACYO. NAGIYE MBONA NNEZA POLITIK Y’INYIGANANO YAKUWE MURI AMERIKA AHO AMSIMA ASIMBURA UBUZIMA,AHO UBUHINZI BUGENZURWA MU BURYO BW IBANGA N’ABASHORAMMALI BO MURI AMERIKA BAJYANYE IMIRIMO Y’ABAHINZI B’INO AHA KUBONA IMBUTO BIGGASABA KUZIGURA N’UBUTEGETSI BUKEGESI KANDI ABATURAGE BARIKORERAGA IMBUTO ZIHANGANNIRA IKIRERE ZIDAHWANYE N’IZIKORERWA MU NGANDA ZA RPF CG USA. URETSE KO N’ICYO KIRERE GIHINDDURWA N’ABAFITE INYUNGU MU IGABANUKA RY’ABANTU. IBI RERO BIRASABA KO ABATURAGE BATANGIRA KWIMENYEREZA KURWANIRA UMUSARURO NA LETA BAGAHUNIKA AHO KUGIRANGO IHUNIKE IBASHYIRIREHO IBICIRO BIHINGIYE. NKA GISAGARA MUTEGEKWA KWIZIRIKA UMUKANDA LETA MUKAYIHUNIKIRA IBIGEGA UWO MUCO NA YESU CHRISTO NTIYAWEMERAGA. WE YAPFIRIYE ABATURAGE NTIYAPFIRIYE IBISAMBO BY’ABATEGETSI.
Criminal Paul KagameNovember 3, 2016 at 8:41 pm #27309
MFAHAMU DONALD TRUMP JOHN (MGOMBEA URAIS WA TAIFA LA MAREKANI KUTOKA CHAMA CHA REPUBLICAN).
Alizaliwa 14 Juni 1946 huko Jamaica Estates, Queens akiwa ni mtoto wa pili kwenye familia ya watoto wanne wa familia ya Mary na Fred Trump na kukulia katika Jiji la New York, Marekani.
Upande wa baba yake (Fred Trump aliyefariki mwaka 1981), alikuwa mzaliwa wa Ujerumani na mama yake (Mary) ni mzaliwa wa Scottish.
Trump alianza kusoma katika Chuo Kikuu cha Fordham kilichopo Bronx mwaka 1964, miaka miwili baadaye alihamishiwa katika Shule ya mambo ya fedha na Uchumi ya Wharton iliyopo Chuo Kikuu cha Pennsylvania ambako alihitimu shahada ya kwanza katika masuala ya uchumi mwaka 1968 kabla ya kujiunga na kufanya kazi kwenye kampuni ya familia yake iliyoitwa Elizabeth Trump & Son.
Mwaka 1971 Trump alikabidhiwa kuongoza makampuni na biashara za baba yake ambapo alipata mafanikio makubwa ndani ya muda mfupi ambayo mpaka sasa ndiye mkurugenzi wake mkuu.
Trump ambaye ni baba wa watoto watano, ni mfanyabiashara mkubwa na bilionea nchini Marekani, pia ni mtayarishaji wa vipindi vya televisheni.
Baadhi ya mali anazomiliki
Trump Ocean Club International Hotel and Tower lililopo Panama City, Panama
Trump Tower lililopo Manhattan
Wollman Rink lililoko Central Park
Trump Taj Mahal lililoko Atlantic City, New Jersey
Turnberry Hotel, iliyoko Ayrshire, Scotland
Trump Hotel Las Vegas
Trump International Hotel & Tower ya New York
Trump International Hotel & Tower ya Chicago
Trump International Hotel ya Las Vegas
Trump International Hotel ya Waikiki Beach Walk
Trump SoHo ya New York
Trump International Hotel & Tower ya Toronto
Taasisi ya Donald J. Trump
Branding na licensing
Ndege kubwa ya Trump’s Boeing 757, maarufu kama “Trump Force One”.
Mwaka huu (2016), Jarida maarufu la Forbes lilikadiria utajiri wa mali za Trump kuwa unafikia dola bilioni 3.7.
Ameweka rekodi ya kuwa mwanasiasa mwenye utajiri mkubwa zaidi kwenye historia ya nchi hiyo.
Ikijumulishwa na thamani ya kampuni yake (brand), Trump anakadiliwa kuwa na utajiri sasa wa dola bilioni 10 na kuwa tajiri namba 324 wa dunia na wa 156 kwa nchi ya Marekani.
Trump ni Mwenyekiti na Rais wa Shirika Kibiashara la Trump (Trump Organization) lenye makao yake makuu katikati ya Mji wa Manhattan ambalo linamiliki majengo mengi marefu, hoteli, kasino, timu za gofu, ndege na miradi mbalimbali mikubwa ya maendeleo nchini Marekani na nje ya Marekani.
Ni mwanasiasa wa Chama cha Republican na anagombea urais wa Marekani kupitia chama hicho mwaka huu, uchaguzi utaofanyika Novemba 8.
Criminal Paul KagameNovember 3, 2016 at 8:57 pm #27310
urupfu rw’umunyemari Makuza Bertin
Inkuru itugezeho mukanya n’ijyanye n’urupfu rutunguranye rw’umunyemari Makuza Bertin wari yabyutse na n’igicurane arwaye. Ndagira ngo nibutse abasomyi b’iki kinyamakuru ko uyu umugabo Bertin Makuza yari umucuruzi ukomeye! Yari Propriétaire wa RWANDAFOM, akaba yari ayifatanije na SERUBUGA na RWAGAFIRITA! Aho bahungiye ubu akaba yari yarayibohoje akayigira iye wenyine!
Tugarutse kuri iri yicwa rya Makuza Bertin rero, biravugwa ko yaba azize kuba atarashimishijwe no kuba FPR yarishe mugenzi we Assinapol Rwagara wishwe ahotowe nyuma y’uko Leta ya Paul Kagame ikoze ikinamico yise accident y’imodoka nyuma bakamuhoterera mu mbangukiragutaba bakora nk’aho bamujyanye kwa muganga. Mwibuke ko aha banze ko hagira umuntu wo mumuryango wa Rwigara ugira icyo amumarira mu gihe yari arimo gusambagurika ahubwo bagahitamo kumupfunyika mu ihema ry’abapfu akiri muzima anariko bagiye amukubita inyundo mumtwe kugirango agere kwa muganga yavuyemo umwuka.
Nyuma y’urupfu rwa Rwigara Assinapol, uyu munyemari Makuza Bertin yagaragaye mu bacikacumu batishimiye uburyo FPR ya Kagame igiye kubamarira ku icumu kuko hari aho yagiye anabiganira na bagenzi nka Jean de Dieu Mucyo nawe uherutse guhirikwa na FPR kuri Escaliers nawe abicanyi ba Kagame bakamunogonorera muri niryo kinamico ryabo ngo ni ukujyana kwa mugaganga.
Makuza Bertin rero yahise apangirwa b’abacurabwenge b’agatsio ka Paul Kagame basanga uburyo bwiza bwo kumwikiza ari ukumuha kuri bwa burozi bwa Kalinga nshya yiyise FPR Inkotanyi buzwi ku izina ry”Utuzi twa Munyuza. Makuza Bertin apfuye aruka amaraso kandi yabyutse ari muzima. Abatekinitsi ba Kagame ubwo ntibarabura ibyo babeshya rubanda ngo nibyo bimwishe. Ukuri kurazwi yarozwe naho ibindi ni ikinamico nk’uko dusanzwe turizi. Ese wa mufosheri wagonze Rwigara ngo akishikana kuri police yaba yaragiye he? Ariko Leta ziragwira iya Paul Kagame yo ni agahebuzo.
Banyarwanda, banyarwandakazi, igihe cyo kureba kure ni iki mugahaguruka tukishyira hamwe tukikiza iyi Kalinga nshya ya FPR igiye kutumarira ku icumu. Kagame ntarobanura umuhutu cyangwa umututsi kuko bimaze kugaragara ko utemera amabi ye wese amwirenza. Ntawashimisha Kagame kurusha Assinapol Rwigara cga Makuza Bertin ariko murabona ko abana babo abahinduye impfubyi abagore babo akabagira abapfakazi. Kagame ni impyisi kandi impyisi ntawe igirara impuhwe kabure n’ubwo yaba yarayihetse. R.I. P Makuza Bertin
Guheka impyisi Paul Kagame ntacyo bimaze ahubwo byaruta ukayikubita hasi ukavugisha ukuri nibura ukanapfa hari inkuru usize imusozi. Rwigara yahetse impyisi ntiyagira icyo avuga, iyo mpyisi yica abanyarwanda areba ntiyavuga ariko biba iby’ubusa iramurya. Makuza Bertin nawe yahetse iyo mpyisi none iramuriye. None se bimaze iki kubona abantu barengana ukicecekera kandi bwacya nawe ukarengana? Nshuti kandi bavandimwe banyarwanda, mureke tuvugishe ukuri twamagane iyi ngoma ya Kagme igambiriye kumara abanyarwanda, naho atari nk’ibyo iratumara. Umututsi cya umuhutu wese wize cyangwa ufite imibereho, agatsiko ka Kagame karamwirenza nta kabuza, kwirirwa rero mwihambira ni ubwende, ahubwo mureke duhagurukire rimwe hakri kare twamagane ako gatsiko
Umucunguzi ni Rubanda, ntimutegereze ngo hari umunyamahanga uzabavaniraho Kagame mutabigizemo uruhari. Twihanganishije umuryango wa Makuza Bertin uri mu cyunamo cy’umubyeyi wabo Paul Kagame yirengeje akoresheje ubwo burozi bwe yabatije utuzi twa Munyuza.
Criminal Paul KagameNovember 3, 2016 at 9:21 pm #27314
Ndagira ngo nisesengurire ingendo Paulo Kagame amazemo iminsi. Iri sesengura ryanjye riravuga uko mbyumva bishobora kuba bitandukanye n’uko abandi babibona kandi nibyo koko twese ntitwumva ibintu kimwe. Mu isesengura ryanjye ndibanda ku ingendo eshatu. Mozambiki, Congo Brazzaville na Gambo, ariko cyane cyane urwo muri Mozambiki.
Kuva kuwa 24 kugeza 25 Ugushingo2016, Paulo Kagame yagize urugendo mu gihugu cya Musa Ben Biki (Moçambique). Yakiriwe ku kibuga cy’indege na Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga n’ubutwererane bwana Oldemiro Baloi, nyuma yakirwa kuri perezidanse na perezida Filipo Nyusi.
Ngo hari hateganyijwe imyigaragambyo y’impunzi ziba Mozambiki ariko ngo iza guhagarikwa ku munota wanyuma ikindi kandi kivugwa aha ni ibyo abayobozi ba Mozambiki basezeranije Paulo Kagame.
Icyo umuntu yakoraho ubusesenguzi ni icyabujije imyigaragambyo yari yemewe kuba. Ese byatewe ni iki? Kugeza uyu munsi ntabwo abari bayisabye berekanye iryo hagarikwa uburyo byakozwemo. Niba baranditse basaba birumvikana ko baba barabonye ibarwa ibemerera hanyuma byakwangwa na none hagasohoka indi ivuguruza iya mbere. Gusa muri Afrika byose birashoboka cyane cyane mubihugu biyobowe n’igitugu birashoboka ko iyo myigaragambyo yahagarikwa n’amagambo (verbalement).
Tuvuge se ko babibwiwe mu magambo? Ariko byagenze baba bararetse kuyikora k’ubwende bwabo kuko ntekereza ko Inkotanyi zaba zaratanze amahera ngo abantu bashyirweho iterabwoba bareke kuyikora. Ikindi na none byakumvikana ko abantu batigeze begera ingeri zose byari bireba ngo bahane ibitekerezo ahubwo bikiherera muri bamwe baba bashaka kuvuga ko bibaye byakwitwa ko aribo babikoze.
Aha naho koko niba byarabujijwe mu nzira zinyuze mu mategeko nk’uko byari byemewe muri izo nzira, umuntu yavuga ko hatabaye ishyishoza ryo kumenya ikibuga gikinirwamo. Ibi kubera ko na none bijyana n’ibyo nakwita ishyuhaguzwa ryo gutangaza ibintu hirya no hino kandi bizwi ko Kagame akoresha amahera gusa mu kugura abantu. Abagombaga kuyikora bagombaga kumara kubona ubwo burenganzira bagakora amanama ajyana n’uko bizakorwa, gutyo diaspora na Kagame bagatungurwa.
Hari umuntu wambwiye ko ababisabye batumvise ikirimi byanditsemo aricyo igipolitigali, ngo bababwiye ko bakiriye ugusaba kwabo (accusé de réception) ko bizasuzumwa ngo bo bakumva ko bemerewe. Ibi biramutse aribyo byaba biteye agahinda.
Kuri njye rero ntarirarenga hari ibindi byakorwa bikerekana ububi bwa Paulo Kagame. Kandi na none umuntu yashimira abari bagize kiriya gitekerezo ariko banasabwa kwigira kubyabaye, niba harabayemo amakosa ubutaha bakazayakosora kuko niyo yicitegrerezo cy’ejo.
2. Ibyemerewe Paulo Kagame n’imikono yashyizwe ku masezerano
Mu bintu byavuzwe cyane ngo Perezida Filipo Nyusi wa Mozambiki yemereye Perezida Paulo Kagame ko ntawe uzakoresha ubutaka bwa Mozambiki ngo ajye gutera u Rwanda cyangwa ahungabanye umutekano w’u Rwanda. Aha niho hari ikibazo gikomeye n’ubwo nabonye bya binyamakuru by’ibisumizi bya Kigali aribyo byanditse gusa kugira ngo bigumye kuyobya rubanda.
Ese u Rwanda rwaba rufite amakuru ko Mozambiki yaba itegura abo kurutera kandi bizwi neza ko abarurwanya bari mu marembo yarwo? Yewe kuva Mozambiki utera u Rwanda manza bamwe basazira mu nzira bataragerayo. None Paulo Kagame we se yemereye iki mugenzi we wa Mozambiki Filipo Nyusi kubijyanye n’umutekano?
Ntawe utazi ko ishaka rya RENAMO rirwanya ubuyobozi buriho mu baritoza harimo n’abanyarwanda kandi hakaba n’abaguye mu mirwano. None Kagame yaba yaramwemereye ko ahagaritse ibyo bikorwa? Aho si bimwe by’umunyagisaka n’umunyenduga!
Na none Kagame na Mushikiwe (Mushikiwabo) basabye abantu bagera kuri 12 bo gucurwa ku ngufu. Muri abo hari umwe uregwa kuba ngo yarasahuye banki mu Rwanda naho abandi ngo ni abakoze ihonyabwoko-tutsi. Aha rero u Rwanda rwasubizanyijwe ubuhanga buhanitse na Minisitiri w’Ubanyi n’amahanga n’Ubutwererana wa Mozambiki Bwana Oldemiro Baloi.
Muri make agira ati: ʺIbyo byose bisaba kwiganwa ubushishozi n’ubwitonzi bikomeye; ibihugu byombi byishyize hamwe kugira ngo bigerageze kuzuza ayo masabwa ashobora kwemerera, bibaye ngombwa, ishyirwa mubikorwa y’iryo janywa mu Rwanda.ʺ Arakomeza avuga ati: Ni ngombwa guha agaciro umurimo wo guteza imbere Mozambiki, wakozwe n’izo mpunzi z’abanyarwanda, kandi na none, muribo ntawe ufite amakimbirane n’amatego y’igihugu cye, binahari waba ari umubare utagize icyo uvuze. Ati: Ubu duhangayikishijwe no kwerekana ko amategeko mpuzamahanaga arengera impunzi akurikizwa muri Mozambiki, bityo Mozambiki ikaba yizera ko na diaspora nyarwanda irinzwe.ʺ
Soma iyi nyandiko iri mu gipolitigali niba ucyumva cyangwa ushyire muri google translate mu rurimi wumva: http://www.voaportugues.com/a/mocambique-ruanda-exilados/3564106.html. Icyashoboye kumenyekana rero ni uko muri bariya basabwa haje kuboneka umuntu wari umwana mu gihe iryotsemba-tutsi ryabaga. Iki kibazo cyabaye ingorabahizi kuko babajije Kagame n’intumwa yari ayoboye bariye iminwa babajijwe kuri uwo muntu wari umwana.
Ibi rero bikaba bigaragaza ko umwana w’umuhutu aho ava akagera ubutegetsi bw’agatsiko ka Kagame bumufata nk’umwicanyi, uretse ba bahutu bagumye guheka impyisi bakabyirengagiza. Na none Mozambiki irabihorera ibizi, kuko nta masezerano ifitanye n’u Rwanda rwo guhana abantu. Cyangwa Kagame ashaka urwitwazo rwo kugumya gushigikira RENAMO?
Kagame amaze kubona ko apfunyikiwe amahuri, nibwo yasabye ko hajyaho akanama ko gukurikirana ibyo bemeranyijwe. Gusa ako kanama ko ni ako kwitegwa! Impunzi zigomba kuba maso.
Mu byashyiwzeho imikono, harimo guhana ubumenyi n’ubunararibonye, guhahirana n’ibindi.
None Mozambiki yaba igiye kwigira ku butegetsi bwa Kagame bw’umuranduranzuzi? Aha nasubiza nishemekeye nti OYA. Mozambiki yubaha abaturage bayo, ntiyabaranduza ibyo bihingiye cyanga ngo abategeko ibyo bahinga n’uburyo babisarura. Mozambiki se yaba igiye kugira ishyaka rimwe riryamira ayandi? Aha naho ni OYA. Kuko n’ikimenyimenyi RENAMO rya shyaka rirwanya ubuyobozi buhari ubu, rifite abarihagarariye mu intumwa za rubanda, ba minisitiri, n’abandi bayobozi mu inzego zose.
Ariko muzumve Kagame we avuga ko utamushigikiye wese, yewe niyo yaba ari isazi azafata ihama (inyundo) akayirangiza. Kagame yivugiye ko atazihanganira uwariwe wese uzafasha utavuga rumwe nawe ngo azanamukocora. Kagame ati njye singira isoni ryo kuvuga ko nica da! Arabibwira bande? Urubyiruko. Kagame washyize umurongo ntarengwa we muri Kigali Convention Center kandi azi neza ko ariwe Nyirabayaza w’imvururu n’intambara zidashira mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari by’Afurika, ashaka kwigisha Mozambiki guteza akaduruvayo muri SADC se? Ndumva atazabishobora. Gusa ashobora gucengera SADC igihe indege ze zizatangira kuza muri Mozambiki, bityo intore ze zikajya ziniga abatamwemera, dore ko Afurika y’Epfo yari yaragize uburimiro yamubwiye ko yahambira utwe.
Sinzi imihahirane Kagame yifuza kugirana na Mozambiki. Nk’imirire irahabanye cyane kandi Mozambiki nayo ibyinshi ibikura hanze. Ku bikorwa remezo rero uretse kwirarira menya ikiraro kimwe cya Mozambiki cyakubaka umuhanda urenze u Rwanda. Mu Rwanda abashoramari bubaka umuturirwa Perezida akirirwa avuga ko ariwo mupaka asigaranye ibyo ntibiba Mozambiki. Umutungo Kamere, koko u Rwanda rufite iki? Keretse ahubwo ruhahiye Mozambiki nk’amakara acukurwa, gaze (ariko se byo bizakoreshwa na nde mu Rwanda?), Petoroli n’ibindi.
Kagame akubutse Mozambiki yafashe iya Congo Brazzaville na Gabon.
Kagame araribwaribwa kandi ubwoba bumugeze habi. Agati karagwa ati baranteye. Kagame ibihe arimo ni nka ya ngwe yashaje itagira n’inzara abantu bagumya gutinya kandi haba hari n’igihe yapfuye. Ba bacanshuro b’abicanyi ba CIA bamaze kumubwira ko noneho ririya tohoza rya bafaransa ritamusiga amahoro, amera nk’usaze. Niyo mpamvu yirukira bariya bagabo bombi ngo arebe ko baba bafite ibikomerezwa mu bufaransa bamufashe gutanga bituga, maze babe babisubika.
Dore no mubyo Mucyo yazize ngo ko hikanzwe ko ashobora guhishura uburyo yatekinitse ya raporo yamwitiriwe. Hakaba n’abemeza ko nyine hari uwo yaba yarabiganirijeho bo muri biriya byihebe bya CIA, akaba ariwe umena ibanga ko babivuzeho. Ikindi kuri izi ngendo, Kagame ujya hanze y’Afurika akakirwa n’abanyeshuri n’abarimu nta na nyumbakumi urimo, yashatse kwisubiza agaciro muri Afurika aho yakirwa n’abagenzi be ba Perezida.
Dusubiye ku mucyo wa kinyarwanda ndetse n’ibyo abandi ba Perezida bakora, Kagame yerekanye ko ari inyamaswa. Gufpusha Senateri n’intumwa ya rubanda mu minsi ikurikiranye ntasubike ingendo, noneho by’agahebuzo muramu we akaba n’umwami wanyuma w’u Rwanda (Kigeli) akimara gupfa ngo yeguye urugendo batarava no ku kiriyo? Yewe ga Kagame we!
Mu tuntu n’utundi, reka ngaruke ku bibera murugo rwa Paual Kagame. Ese ko Nyiramongi atigeze agaragara muri izi ngendo ahubwo agaherekezwa n’uriya mugore wagira ngo arara areba mu rwabya rw’uburozi, aho muzunga ntigikomeza hagati ya Kagame na Nyiramongi?
Aha Kagame haragazwe ariko iminsi izamwereka ko arutwa n’isazi nzima.
Criminal Paul KagameNovember 3, 2016 at 10:06 pm #27316
Makuza Bertin yishwe azize ijambo yavuze
Kuki FPR yihase kwica abatutsi bose bakuye ubukungu bwabo ku ngoma ya Habyarimana ? Makuza Bertin FPR yamwishe imuziza iki ?
Makuza Bertin yishwe azize ijambo yavuze rigira riti : umucyene wifitiye amahoro, aruta kure umucyire ubunza imitima ‘’:
Abanyarwanda batari bacye, basigaye barumiwe ndetse batewe ubwoba n’ibikorwa bya FPR byo kwica abatutsi bose babayeho ku ngoma ya Habyarimana, ndavuga abakomora ubukungu bwabo kuri iyo ngoma, kimwe n’abatutsi bacitse kwicumu ariko bakomoka mu Rwanda rwo kungoma ya Habyarimana..
Bijya gutangira hishwe abatutsi bakomoka ku kibuye, abandi barahunga , harimo ba Joseph Sebarenzi wigeze gutegeka inteko ishinga amategeko, mu bahunze kandi bari bacyize barimo ba sisi Evariste, nabandi benshi bari mu rwego rwe, sinsize Rwigara Assinapol wishwe kandi akanasenyerwa.
Abatutsi batavuye hanze kenshi bisanga mu bibazo bisa nkibyo abahutu bafite ku goma ya Paul kagame :
Uyu munsi abatutsi bose bari bakize , abo FPR yasanze imbere mu gihugu kandi bayifashije mu kugera ku butegetsi, FPR yarabishe, abandi irabakenesha, harimo no kubacecekesha.
Ba Kajeguhakwa Valens, nti bakivuga , ejo bundi uwitwa Rwabukamba ukomoka i Rwamagana wari warakijijwe no gucuruza ibikomoka kuri Petrol yarishwe, mu gihe ukwezi kutararangira, none na Makuza Bertin nawe arishwe kandi ari we mututsi ukomeye mu bafashije FPR kugera ku butegetsi.
Ibi bivuze ko usibye abatutsi bavuye hanze, nta mututsi warusanzwe mu gihugu FPR isa nkaho yifuza ; kuko bariya bose bayivuguruza cyangwa bahora babaza icyo bazize, kugira ngo FPR ibe yarabicishije igamije ku gera ku butegetsi, abo bose batekereza batyo nibo FPR igenda yica, ivana mu nzira.
Reka turebe muri macye uruhari Makuza Bertin yagize mu gusenya Ingoma ya Habyarimana no gushyira FPR ku butegetsi :
Abacuruzi b’abatutsi b’imbere mu gihugu bakoze akazi gakomeye cyane mu gusenya igisirikare cya Habyarimana :
N’ubwo Habyarimana nawe ubwe, umuntu yavuga ko yari yaracengewe n’abacuruzi b’abatutsi bakoreraga inkotanyi, ndavuga ba Kajeguhakwa, ba Rwigara, na ba Sisi Evariste, ukagerekaho n’abanyamadini b’abatutsi wagombaga kunyuraho byanze bikunze iyo wifuzaga kwakirwa na Habyarimana. Hari n’abandi benshi bakoze akazi ko kumunga icyo gisirikare . Uwitwa Makuza Bertin wari ufite uruganda rukora Matela i Gikondo, yari yarafashe imigabane mu ruganda rwe ayiha Colonel Serubuga Laurent, kugira ngo abashe kumwiyegereza, na ba Rwagafirita na bo bagurwa na Rwigara Assinapol, Kajeguhakwa na we afata abasirikare benshi bakuru abagurira amakamyo ya rukururana kandi ayaha akazi ko kujya bajya kumuzanira essance muri Kenya. Uko kwinjiza abasirikare mu kwaha kw’abatutsi bari bafite integano yo gufasha FPR gutegura imirwano, niko kwasenye igisirikare cya Habyarimana. Byatumye inkotanyi zibasha kugera hose no kumenya ibyo zifuzaga byose mu butegetsi bwa Habya
Urundi rugero rwa hafi :
Ubwo inkotanyi zateguraga gutera u Rwanda muri 1990, hari inama y’abanyamigabane b’uruganda rwa Rwanda form rukora matela rwayoborwaga na Makuza Bertin, inkotanyi zakoze ibishoboka byose ngo izabere mu Bubirigi, kandi Serubuga ari we uzajya guhagararira abanyamigabane bandi. Serubuga yagiye mu Bubirigi muri iyo nama ; bikubitiraho n’uko Habyarimana nawe yari yaragiye muri Amerika gukurikirana hafi inama yigaga ibibazo by’abana.
Ubwo u Rwanda rwaje guterwa tariki ya 01.10.1990 mu Rwanda nta bayobozi bakuru b’ingabo bahari, kuko Serubuga yari mu Bubirigi yaroherejweyo na Makuza Bertin, naho Habyarimana yari muri Amerika muri ya nama navuze.
Ikindi gikomeye makuza Bertin yaba yazize, nuko yababajwe n’uruphu rwa Rwigara Assinapol, nisenywa Ryinzu ye, FPR igambiriye gukenesha abakomoka kuri Rwigara bose.
Criminal Paul KagameDecember 3, 2016 at 8:58 pm #27321
UBWoBA BUKABIJE KUBAFUNGWA BOHEREZWA MuRI gereza ya mageragere.
Nyuma yuko reta ya kigali ifashe umwanzuro wo kwimura abafungwa bari bafungiwe muri gereza nkuru ya kigali izwi ku izina rya 1930.abafunze ndetse nabafite ababo bafunze bafite impungenge kubera kuyubaka muncyengera za nyabarongo, ubu bakaba babonako babegereje nyabarongo kugira ngo utabyumva kimwe nabo wese bajye bamugaburira ingona bororeye nyabarongo.
Bamwe mubafungwa barimo basaba uwabasha kubatabariza ko yabafasha kuko ubuzima bwabo buri mukaga. Bagira bati nubundi basohoraga abantu ntitumenye iyo barengeye bwacya tukumva ngo habonetse imirambo muri rweru,none natwe batwegereje ruriya ruzi bororeyemo ingona.twabibutsa ko abaturage baturiye ruriya ruzi bamaze iminsi bataka kubera ziriya ngona zororewe muri nyabarongo. Ufite icyo yafasha wese umusanzu wiwe urakenewe.
Criminal Paul KagameDecember 4, 2016 at 12:38 pm #27324December 4, 2016 at 12:39 pm #27325
MU GIHE PAUL KAGAME YITABIRIYE KUMARA ABACIKAMBUNDA BO MU RWANDA BOSE AKORESHEJE INZARA, ARASABA BAMWE MU BACIKAMBUNDA KO KUGIRA NGO BABONE ICO BARYA MU NGOMA Y’ IGITUGU YA PAUL KAGAME, BAGOMBA KUMANZA BEMERA GUHAKANA UBWOKO BWABO NDETSE NO KUBANZA GUTUKA, KWAMAGANA NO GUHAKANA ABABYEYI BABO HANYUMA BAGASABA N’IMBABAZI ZABO NDETSE N’IZ’ABABYEYI BABO NUBWO NTA KIBI BABA BARAKOZE. NIYO MPAMVU UZASANGA MURI PROPAGANDA ZE PAUL KAGAME ASHOBORA GUSABA NK’UMWANA W’UMUKOBWA, AKABA YARAFUNZE CG SE YARISHE ABABYEYI BE, HANYUMA AKABA ARIWE ASABA GUTANGA UBUHAMYA KU NGUFU KBWICANYI BWABAYE MU RWANDA. NA NONE TURAMUZI LIONEL RICHIE NISHIMWE IBYO AVUGA KU MPUNZI YABANYE NAZO MU GIHUGU CYA ZAMBIA. TWIBUKEKO LIONEL RICHIE NISHIMWE WAGUZWE NA PAUL KAGAME NGO AJYE KWICA IMPUNZI Z’ABANYARWANDA ZIRI MURI ZAMBIA, HARIMO N’ABABYEYI BE, ISE NA NYINA NDETSE NA BENE NYINA, ABAHUNGU N’ABASHIKI BE BOSE BARACARI MURI ZAMBIA NKIMPUNZI.MWARAMWUMVISE EVODE UWIZEYIMANA IGIHE YAVUGAGA MU GIHE IMBUTO FOUNDATION YARI YATERANYE. BIRAKORWA NA RUCAGU BONIFACE NABANDI NKABO. MINISITRI MUKANTABANA USHINZWE KUJYA KUCURA IMPUNZI KU GIRA NGO AZIZANE AZISHIKIRIZE PAUL KAGAME KU GIRA NGO AZICE ZOSE AZIMARE NA WE NI UMUCIKAMBUNDA WAVUYE MU NKAMBI Z’ IMPUNZI MURI CONGO BRAZAVILLE KUBW’AMACUMU Y’INDA NO GUHAKIRIZWA. IBI BYOSE NYINE BITERWA N’AMACUMU Y’INDA NO GUSHAKA GUHAKWA KWABAMWE MURI BENE SEBAHINZI CG ABACIKAMBUNDA BAMWE.
ABACIKACUMU ICO PAUL KAGAME ABASHAKAHO BOSE N’UKWEMERA KO ARIWE WABARWANIRIYE KANDI AKABAKIZA. UTABYEMERA AKAMWICA. UMUCIKACUMU UWARI WESE AGOMBA KWEMERA KO ABACIKAMBUNDA BATAGOMBA KUBAHO. UMUCIKACUMU WEMERAKO UMUCIKAMBUNDA AGOMBA KUBAHO ATISHWE, PAUL KAGAME AGOMBA KUMWICA.
3. BOUTIQUES Z’AMAGUFA Y’ABACU ZA PAUL KAGAME KU GISOZI
AMAGUFA Y’ABACU BOSE PAUL KAGAME YISHE MURI GENOCIDE YATEGUYE UBWE KANDI AKANAYISHIRA MU BIKORWA, YAYASHIZE MUTUBATI CG SE MURI ZA BOUTIQUES ZE KU GISOZI KUKO YIYEMEJYE GUKORESHA GENOCIDE NKA BUSINESS AGOMBA GUKORESHA ASHAKA AMAFRANGA. UMUCIKACUMU RERO WESE UZEMERA KO AMAGUFA PAUL KAGAME ACURUZA KU GISOZI HATARIMO AMAGUFA Y’ABACIKAMBUNDA. UMUCIKACUMU WESE AGOMBA GUHAKANA KO MURI ZA BOUTIQUES Z’AMAGUFA Y’ABACU ARI KU GISOZI NTA Y’ABACIKAMBUNDA. BITABA IBYO KAGAME PAUL AGOMBA KUMWICA CG AKAMWIRUKA MU GIHUGU YITA ICYE.
Criminal Paul Kagame
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